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Resignation/ Disfellowshipping Letters 



January 1, 2011 

These are letters that I wrote 30 years ago when I decided to resign my 
membership and association with Jehovah's Witnesses. There are two sets of 
letters in this file. 

The first set of letters are the exchange I had with the local congregation 
and the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses (their ruling council at their 
headquarters) over whether I had voluntarily resigned or had been expelled 
("disfellowshipped"). At the time (1980), there was no announced policy how 
to treat people who voluntarily resigned ("disassociated") from the religion. 
Even though I had voluntarily disassociated from Jehovah's Witnesses I was 
not shunned as are those who are disfellowshipped. 

Initially, the local congregation announced I had voluntarily disassociated 
but a couple of months later they announced to the congregation that I had 
been disfellowshipped. In a subsequent discussion with one of the 
congregation elders I was told they were ordered to disfellowship me in a 
letter they had received from headquarters. After that announcement I was 
totally shunned. I protested their action and eventually wrote to the 
Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses in New York demanding they 
withdraw this expulsion action. 

This dispute over whether I had 'quit' or been 'fired' received some local 
news coverage. Eventually, in early June of 1981 the local congregation 
reversed the disfellowshipping (presumably after being notified to do so by 
headquarters) and announced to the local congregation that their action had 
been unnecessary. 

However, just a few months later, the September 15, 1981 Watchtower 
changed the policy towards those who had voluntarily disassociated. From 
then on, anyone who resigned membership in the religion would be shunned 
just as someone who was disfellowshipped. So, after this change in policy I 
was shunned again but at least it was clear I had left the religion of my own 
volition. 

The first set of letters contain: 



1) My voluntary disassociation letter dated August 5, 1980 

2) The letter of disfellowshipping I received dated January 2, 1981 

3) My initial protest to the local congregation dated January 15, 1981 

4) My letter to the Governing Body demanding a withdrawal of their 
disfellowshipping me dated February 28, 1981 

5) News coverage from the Tucson Citizen mentioning my case (last 
column of article) 

6) I did receive a notice of the reversal from the local congregation in 
early J une of 1981 but I no longer have a copy of that letter 

7) The change in policy regarding those who disassociate themselves 
from J ehovah's Witnesses as first published in the September 15, 1981 
Watchtower 

Appended to this collection is the letter I sent out dated September 25, 1980 
to dozens of Jehovah's Witness friends to explain why I had resigned from 
the Witnesses. It begins with a verbatim copy of my resignation letter and 
then discusses doctrinal concerns I had with the J ehovah's Witness' 
teachings about Jesus Christ. 

Dave Brown 

daveiqnatius@qmail.com 



David T. Brown 
5017 N. 25 Ave. Apt C 
Phoenix AZ 85015 
August 5, 1980 

Body of Elders, Encanto Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses 
Phoenix, Arizona 

Gentlemen: 

Following the procedure outlined on pages 61 and 62 of the book "Pay 
Attention Jbo Yours elves and to All the Flock " I am hereby providing 
written notice of my desire to voluntarily disassociate myself from 
the Encanto Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses and also from any 
association with the Watchtover Bible and Tract Society. I have 
arrived at this decision after much prayer, Bible reading, and intensive 
personal study. I can no longer believe that the Watchtower Bible and 
Tract Society is God's visible earthly organization. 

I have no animosity towards anyone of Jehovah's Witnesses. In my 15 
years of association with the Witnesses I have known many wonderful 
people. Many have been true friends and very kind and helpful, even in 
a material way. I would say all of them were sincere. They have not 
been perfect, but neither have I been perfect. They are still in my 
thoughts and prayers. 

I know this hurts Doris very much. Even though it hurts me to be the 
cause of her pain I feel I must proceed with this voluntary disassociation, 
oince my wife desires to remain a Witness I ask the congregation not 
to forget her. I know you will do what you can to help her, but I 
wanted you to know that I will not oppose such aid. 

I request when announcement is made to the congregation of my action 
that it is made clear that this is a voluntary action on my own part. 
You are free to show this letter to anyone you wish as an explanation 
why I have taken this action. 

Sincerely, 






Dear Mr. Brown: 



■■ 



5235 N. Nineteenth Avenue 
Phoenix, AZ 85015 
January 2, 1981 



■ 



Mr. David Brown 

5017 N. 23rd Avenue, Apt. #3 

Phoenix, AZ 85015 



tr 



. 



i5£ t™ 5? nsiderat i°n, the committee of the Encanto Congregation of 
itZtJ ltn T eS £ ° Und U necessa ^ ^ disfellowship you from ?he 
congregation. It was so announced to the congregation on November 28, 






■ 



Respectfully submitted, 



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David T. Brown 
5017 N. 25 Ave. Apt. 5 
Phoenix AZ 85015 
January 15, 1981 

Body of Elders, En can to Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses 
c/o Mr. Roy L. Horton 
5235 N. 19 Avenue 
Phoenix AZ 85015 

Gentlemen: 

Today I received a letter from you telling ne that you have disfellow- 
shiped me from the congregation and that announcement of this was made 
to the congregation on November 28, 1980. Such action on your part 
comes as a great surprise to me. I have talked to one of the judicial 
committee on the telephone since you announced the disfellowshiping, 
but you did not choose to inform me until today. Since you prefer to 
communicate about this natter by the mail I have decided not* to telephone 
you regarding it, but to reply by mail myself. 

On August 6, 1980 I personally delivered to Mr. Roy L. Horton, at his 
home address, written notice dated the day before of my desire to 
voluntarily disassociate myself from the Encanto Congregation, This 
action on my part was based on the procedure outlined on .pages 61 and 
62 of the book " Fay Attentio n to yourselves and to All the Flock " which 
says: "If a baptised person insists that he wants to be no part 01 the 
congregation and he wants his name removed from all our records, we can 
comply with his request. If he takes such an adamant position, it would 
be well to encourage him to put his request in writing* and it can be 
held in ths congregation files. In a case like this the Society should 
be notified and a brief announcement should he made to the congregation. 
The person will be viewed as 'disassociated' and he would have to apply 
for reinstatement in the regular way in order to become a member of the 
congregation again." Mr. Horton told me that my resignation letter would 
be acceptable to the congregation. (A copy of that letter is enclosed with 
this letter). Mr. Horton and I talked for several minutes at that time 
regarding my action and one question I put to him was whether the congre- 
gation would go ahead and try to disfeilowship mo an'- way. He gave me 
several assurances that would never happen because by my resigning in the 
way I was I was removing myself from the congregation. In fact, he 
reminded me of the Society's instructions quoted above which state that I 
would need to apply for reinstatement if I desired to become a part of 
the congregation again. Mr. Horton did say he wanted to discuss my action 
with the elders of the Encanto Congregation before making announcement to 
the congregation. This he did and announcement of my voluntary disassocia- 
tion was made to the Encanto Congregation on August 15, 1960 by one of the 
elders, Mr. Joseph Biehl, I had supplied a copy of my resignation letter 
to the Solano Congregation and they announced my voluntary disassociation 
on August 20, 1980, and this was announced by one of their elders, Mr, 
Herman Kurrlc. In view of the fact I had already removed myself from 
any association with the Encanto Congregation or from Jehovah's Witnesses 
in August of 1980 it surprises me that you now say that you 'found it 
necessary to disfeilowship me from the congregation. 1 How can you' 
disfeilowship someone who is no longer a part of the congregation? If, 
according to the Society's instructions quoted above, I would already need 
to apply for reinstatement to "bocr:r:e a' member of the congregation again ," 
how can you disfeilowship me as though I still waa a member of the congre- 
gation? 



Page 2 

It i£j true that I mailed letters to several of my Witness friends 
explaining why I decided to resign. But I did this nearly two months 
after I had resigned. Regardless of how you feel about my present 
religious beliefs don't you agree I have the right to inform my friends 
of my decision to voluntarily disassociate myself and the. reasons why I 
felt I should? There was no attempt in any of those letters to cover 
over the fact I had resigned. The first page in every letter contained 
a verbatim copy of my resignation letter so all of my friends were fully 
informed that I was no longer a Witness. It is also true I wrote a letter 
to the Watchtower Society telling them I felt they have been dishonest in 
some of their scholarship, but this letter was dated September 26, 1980 
(long after my resignation), and I plainly told them I had already voluntarily 
disassociated myself from the congregation. 

There are several unanswered questions regarding your disfellowshiping 
action. For e xactly what grounds did you decide it was "necessary" to 
disfeliowship [expel) me from the congregation? Exactly how was the 
announcement read to the congregation? Did it simply say you were 
disfellowshiping me? Or did it state you were disfellowshiping me for 
"conduct unbecoming a Christian?" Or did it state it was for "apostasy?" 
Or was it for "promoting sects and divisions?" Or something else? Were 
there, either at that time or at some other time, any further remarks 
about me either directly or by innuendo? In what other congrerations of 
Jehovah's Witnesses was your disfellowshiping action read? Why was I never 
informed that you were disregarding the fact I had already resigned and that 
you were proceeding to try me by the judicial committee? I do appreciate 
that you finally did inform me of what you have done, but why did you wait 
so long to do so? You nay feel these questions are minor or silly, but I 
feel ycu owe me some explanations and answers to those questions. In a 
group of people of which I was no member you brought Up Ely name in a 
bad light and stated you were "expelling" me from membership for sone 
wrongdoing. If someone is treated like that shouldn't they* be informed 
as to whv and how it was done? I would appreciate it greatly if you would 
by either letter ur in person explain your action and answer the questions 
I. am asking in this letter. 

In view of the fact I have not been a member of your congregation or of your 
religion since August of 1 980 I ask you to reconsider your disfellowshiping 
action. Tour action does not take into account the procedure outlined in 
the book "Pay Attention to Yourselves and to All .the" Flock" on rages 61 
and 62, iou are allowed to use my name in this "v ay if you make announce- 
ment to the congregation: 'The decision made to disfeliowship Mr. David 
T, Brown, announced on November 28, 1980 was in error. Mr. Brown had 
already voluntarily disassociated himself from the congregation previous 
to that tine and therefore not a member of the congregation subject to 
disfellowshiping. Mr. Brown left the congregation of his own volition.' 
Tou may not use my name or refer to me (either directly or by innuendo) 
in any other way in your meetings without my permission. I also ask that 
if you do reconsider your disfellowshiping action you notify all the 
Other congregations that also read your disfellowshiping notification and 
ask them to announce the reversal. May I hear from you by February 15, 
1981 if you will withdraw your disfellowshiping decision? 

Thank you, 

JQiuAJ W . TJVtruA — - 



Mr. Frederick W, Franz 
124 Columbia Heights 
Brooklyn, New York 11201 



David T. Brown 
5017 N. 23 Ave. Apt. J 
Fhoenix, Arizona 8^015 
February 28 f 1981 



Dear Mr. Franz, 

The May 15> 1980 Watchtower (page 30) relates the almost 
unbelievable response one man received when he wrote to his local 
Catholic Church to have his name removed from its records: "Under 
no conditions can we remove your name from any Baptismal or other 
Sacramental records. As you know the Catholic Church is the one 
true Church founded by Jesus (Matt 16) and to so remove your name 
would be a sin against the Holy Spirit," Surely, such an attitude 
by that Catholic Church is hypocritical and preposterous. Due to 
recent developments I feel compelled to ask if a similar attitude 
is to be encouraged among Jehovah's Witnesses? I do not believe 
you think so. 

Early last August I decided I did not want to remain one of 
Jehovah's Witnesses so I wrote a letter to the local congregation 
(Phoenix, Arizona, Encanto Congregation) and voluntarily dis- 
associated myself, following the procedure outlined on pages 61 and 
62 of " Pay Attention to Yourselves and to A ll t he Floc k." The elders 
of that congregation accepted my action as valid and for nearly 4 
months it was an accepted fact that I had resigned from the congre- 
gation and was no longer one of Jehovah's Witnesses, 

Last month I found out that the elders of that congregation 
decided it was "necessary" to disfellowship me from the congregation 
in late November, DESPITE THE FACT I WAS NO LONGER A MEMBER OF THE 
CONGREGATION. Still later I was informed the disfellowshiping was 
for "apostasy," 

On February 8, 1981 I met with 2 elders from the Encanto Congre- 
gation who told me they had 'made a mistake' in accepting my 
resignation letter and that they should have disfellowshiped me at 
that time instead of allowing me to resign. They also indicated 
they were told to disfellowship me by someone there at Brooklyn Bethel, 

I know such a mistake could not have been made by you or anyone on 



Page 2 

the Governing Body. Therefore I am writing to you so that 
this situation can he corrected. 

Surely It is quite unethical for the Encanto Congregation 
to represent me as a member of that congregation and then 
subject my reputation and character to the stigma that goes 
with disfellowshiping, when it was a settled matter that I 
was no longer a Witness. The way the Encanto Congregation 
handled their disfellowshiping procedure is also reprehensible. 
I was never notified in advance of a committee meeting to 
disfellowship me. Neither was I invited to attend. I was not 
informed of their action until the middle of January, a month 
and a half afterwards. 

Respectfully I ask you to instruct the Encanto Congregation 
to retract theix disfellowshiping action and to notify me in 
writing of their retraction. The truth of the matter is that 
I was not expelled from the congregation, I resigned and left 
of my own volition. I would really appreciate it if you would 
straighten out this situation. I am enclosing all pertinent 
correspondence with this letter. I realize you have many 
responsibilities to care for, but I am trusting there won't be 
too much delay on this matter. 



Thank you, 



%AJ~u\ W. 7&lcr\ 



/QttV 



David T. Brown 
Copies to members of the Governing Body individually and to the 
Encanto Congregation. 



T T *S. 



kj KJM.M.\J TT 



fc »/J 



in Social Security benefits 



NEW YORK (AP) — 
Most of the 115 million 
American works re who pay 
Social Security taxes have 
little laith that -they will 
ever get benefits in return 
Irom the financially trou- 
bled system," an Associated 
PreswJBC News poll says. 

Itepite^tMoejnarJtablL 
lackof faith, the public gen- 
erally doesn't like Ronald 
Reagan's plan to save the 
system from bankruptcy. 

.. In particular, those who 
are familiar with Reagan's 
plan oppose by a 1-1 margin 
the suggestion that benefits 
for all future retirees be cut 
by an average of 10 per- 
cent, 

_ JDie.lack ol suppori_lar_ 
the Reagan plan does not 
mean the public knows how 
to solve Social Security's 
problems, but putting limits 
on benefits arid using gen- 
eral tax revenues 10 fund 
the system do get some 
support as possible solu- 
tions. 



Americans- ha-ve-a stun- 
ning lack of confidence in 
the soundness of the .Social 
Security system, which bow 
collects taxes fnJm US mil- 
lion workers and their em- 
ployers and (hen pays bene- 
fit a to 36 mi I lion-people.— 

About three-quarters of 
- the-public • — 74-pereeBfr 
said they have little or no 
confidence that the Social 
Security system will have 
[he money to pay them re 
tirement benefits. Only 22 
percent of those questioned 
said they have complete " 
confidence or a great deal 
of "confidence that the sys- 



Bridge , ijl.JIA 

Classified JF 

Comics 7B 

EgJtorialH.'..^..'. HA 

Financial i 1M4D 



Dr :Mendasnnn ...., UA Your Stars.. 



tern will have the .funds 
available. Four percent of 
the 1,599 adults interviewed 
nationwide by telephone 
Monday and Tuesday were 
not sure. 

■ As one might expect. 
__ Americans -wltrrtrie- 
iongesr to go before retit-- 
ent are. jhe least ..cunfL- 
dent in the system and 
those close to retirement 
are the most confident. 

But Reagan's ideas to 
save the system rrom its fi- 
nancial problems have little 
backing. 

During the last decade, 
there have been warnings 



Movie Tiroes 14C 

Public Records IE 

Puzzle package IF 

TV-Radio ISC 

Weather ;. ID 



-SC 



that the Social Security sys- 
tem faces a variety of fv 
nancial problems due to 
high inflation, high unem- 
ployment and low produc- 
' tivity, and because there 
are fewer workers now to 
~pay-"for the benefits- of-a 
-rapidly increasing group of 
-*etireesr "■■ 

Recent efforts to cure the 
financial ills have fallen 
short, leaving the system 
facing a cash crunch in the 
next two years and much 
larger problems about 30 to 
40 years in the-futurer 

To.stan-with, <5 percent 
of the public said they had 
not even. heard or read 
about the proposals. 

"Of those who had, fed' 
ings were mixed. Nineteen 
percent favored the propos- . 
als and 30 percept opposed 

them. Seven percent fa- 
vored sorffe of the proposals 
and opposed others. Nine 

_ Continued, Page 4A. 



nice one 

Let's give a cheer 
For month of May; 
Wish it were here 
FeFever^Q\& 



best since j 

WASHINGTON (AP) — Gasolini 
April, holding the nation's overall in 
cent — an &miyal_r&te_of_!Ll .pert. 



— Haven Lee 

It's goihgtowarm up a 
bit for the weekend, which 
should make that holiday 
trip to the mountains or 
lakes just about perfect. 

— In Tucson, the thermom- - 
eter should approach 80 de- 



grees tomorrow and tem- 
peratures are expected to 
be normal through the Me- 
morial Day weekends Thai 
means the low 90s. 

. The mercury reached .82 
yesterday and dropped to 
S3 -thJ^-moming, which -is 
eight degrees below n ormal 
for'lhls tirrVe of year. The 
low tonight should be about 
"58. - — 

iti-rje-SHJiny^tirilt^ 
tie or'iso wind expected. 

Hotspot in the na tion yej 
terday was Presidio, 
Texas, which hit 97, while 

Ely, Nev . , Jiad -tBe-only- 

"freezing "terrlperature — 31 , 



performance since last July, the govt 
Inflation is averaging about 8.4 

four percentage points under the 12.4 

year. - 

The April figure,, which JoHows 

March, is the best since the 0.1 perct 

Overall food {iriceSi which mar 
rise substantially this year, remali 
gaining only slightly in the previous; 
today's consumer pnee index' relea 
ment. 

Prices for food purchases at grr 
cent, but prices for restaurant rnea 
were slitrhtly higher. 

Gasoline prices declined-1,4 pe 
13:4 percent in the first three mow 
said; Arid economists say that a ciii 
lion, surplus makes It unlikely that 
ergy-cost increases in the next few r 

T ra nspo Eta t io n cost s i n . a en e r. 

April, with the gj soJlne- price . drop* 
percent rise in new cat-pnces'wiiH 

grams, 

h&.report said the. unadjusted 
to 266:8 in April, which means that t 

$10 in 1967 would have cost G&68 la< 



omplete I 
_^-Hage 



ZD._ 



ine lirjof "Department also'sali 
-after (axes and after adjusting (or i 
cent In April (or an average piarrj 
— dependents, '- - ' 



Local Jehovah's Witnesses irit with schism^ 



By LEE SUSP*R- — ■ 
Cln»n Su* Wi«k 



T(IrX*rang , ^no r ^Mr^u^Rfrar3afn'i 



^pa.perfloated~dowTrtil^e~^sIstst-Do^tettl as _ Mary 
Hing pulled the note from the envelope. 

"You are & fool," it reaftiiSrwistrEHad never known you. 
Don't ever try to contact me again." 

=^ Th fr s crap s -w e r e onc - 9 a copy of M s-r K i ng' s l e tt e r of 



resignation fromJI^saji's.. Valencia .Congregation of Jehovahis. 
WftneSses "artrrthe'Watchtower Bible and Tract Socletyr 
note was from a friend of Mrs. Wlng's/aTsc laWwvafrs yVit^_ 

; ">tresg Th er e w ere also TJtctures" of Ms. filing's" twosonsln the . 

% envelope, pdctuneasenl back-by her friend: " 

Now Mrs "Kiing has fewer friends. When she tried (o re- 
.sign, (he congregation responded like (fie boss who tells his 
employee, you can't quit?-, you 're 'fired. She- was dlsfellov/- 
shlpped, the JW term for excommunication. 

Disleilowshlpplug is done to keep th eorgan lzaUon " clean. "- 
Those booted out are usually shunned arid regarded as spiritual 
pariahs, guilty of some Immoral act or of violating" baste dofc- 
trine. - = r*V v ■ _ '• -* - .-~ r - 



st," r Sdrti e tci,.- ied , and others Just 
said they just "wanted to tjuletly join-whatsome ex-Wlfriesses stoppedacUve-paaidpatJoh, but almost ill feel the organization ■ 
-say if W.mO yi' ho haveleft-HHe- fo m il jton ^nember^cganiiatioa; — luis-gone^wron^n- dootrin a .orm e t hedsrSevera^afe-ftripg the — ■ 
or Decome inactive since 1970, Instead, Mrs. Kling said, sheivas". society, and.spTinterTJlble study groups are forming j^but most— =^ - . 
caught -up In what has been called r'"witch hunt" of those ■ are frustrated by the-Wltness practice ol. avoiding all non-JW - - 
whose loyalty to the Watchtowe? Society 1b suspect, a purge contact, particularly with those who have left the foldr 

- . . Former Witnesses say there may be even more who ques- 
- t i on th e c qcl c ty'o r esettin g, but to do s o rxibl i cly -means-thejrijxr- 
-would-be ettludedrBTfn forfettthe et^Hiallife tfiat: JwTBelieve " 



!^edgttepQEL 



only .they can achieve. 



that reportedly has tumbled members Of the J Ws' 1'9-member 
Governing Body and-people-lrrtocal congregations throughout 
thewotiC ... •: 

Wttch 1 hunt or not^ an Informal network of disaffected Wit- 
nesses has formed, from theapexot the society's International 
headquarters' in Brookiyn, N V., tfl Tucaoo and 
gallons. ■ ^ . | 

""»' .' ■ .^'- ■ -v f- -r -j 



"lbe-dlsputea-do -not-center-qa-one-1 mu V although - ™ 
i former JWs contest society beliefs that-only 144,000 — the bodjv 
called the "faithful and discreet slave" to Jehovah — wiir reach ■ 
heaven (alt the soots are taken); 'the unquestioning allegiance 
to (he Governing BoSy, and (he failure ol, the JW prediction that" 
the world woulnend I n 1975. '- 

-. JW spokesmen from congregation elders to the Governing 
Body say they dorft-^uideretaBdrwhy outsiaera are interested In 
what they see as-conffdentlal-lntemal affairs, and dismiss 



Continued on Page IA 



-4 



a—a- 



Local-Jehovah's Witnesses hit wit h schism 1 



f From Page 3 V 



complaints Irom people ttejwall a lew .' 
;ed. embiffered indrnduaisr"" . — 



the congregation's six elders dated March 13, 
stating that theyshad heard reports that Mrs. 
Kling "expressed ideas contrary to those of 



They point to steady increases in the total 
number of'pubtrsJMs" — the active mem- 
■ ■ -h ere w ho-partic-ipatg-in doo r ta doo r praachm 
work — as evidence of a healthy i _ 
which according to the "1381 Yearbook of Je- 
hovah's Witnesses" numbers 2,272.278 world- 
wide, including 565.309 in the Unit ed States. 

. Obse rvers ^cknowledgE_ihis_gmauh,_biil_ 
claim thelricrease is due (o new baptisms 
which offset the number of people leaving or 
becoming inactive the organization , 

-Pockets ol dissension abounoVan 



Jehova h's Witne sse s " " and " I nv lte d - H d isfer 
lowshipped person to come to yo ur home-t or 
biuJjr." 

Mrs; Kling also was accused of believing 
ihat JW counsel for youpg people was overly 
■Ar-ot disagreeing with the JW-intenpi 



but it's m.r supposed to be connected with the / 
Watchtower Society," Mrs. Kling said. "** 

'■^n why «» I hojnfl rticfallfmrehippml 



I hat? Are they taking the words of those 

u-hnfilrhilrfmn nupr.jfiiniO" -t == — - 



Richaiid Puummer, principal of the school, _ 
at 3301 E. Patricia St., told a Citizen 1 reporter 
that New. World was indep endent, bu t fjfjjfg iff 
thFphbne when askefral^^rsntlingTwho 



are quiet. Alfred Nussrailah, the Watchtower 
circuit overseer for about 20 English-speaking 
conp re Rati ons '" lne Tucson , a rea, /said he iJiiL 
not know" ot any other'disfellowships and could 
-not comments the Kline case because he did 
not know itsnspeeificsrBui "fiFdfd sayTthara- 
congregation usually permits a person two to 
three misdeeds before taking Judicial action. 



son Citizen has received copies of letters, news 
reports and legal files Irom loosely coordin- 
ated U.S. and Canadian groups disenchanted 
with the organization. 

One of the focal points of such groups is 
Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, where the 
Kling's brother-in-law, James Penton, has 
filed a $130,000 defamation suit against the or- 
ganization. Penton. a University of Lethbridge 
history professor and religion scholar, said he 
was disfellowshipped last year alter tie critic- 
ised the Watchtower Society lor strictness and 
suggested that il consider other forms of evan- 
gelism rather than the lO-hour-p^ r-week door- 
tc-door preaching required of JWs to remain 
in good standing 

"It was. not a doctrinal difference I just 
advocated more fre«Jom and more love." 
-P en t o n ■sai d~"fint-rtnrt*l s se e n ua JesfiT i ffr 
to order (by the society) " 

Penton, author of a book on the JWs' his- 
tory in Canada, said he wrote an eight-page 
- le tt er t o t he-Brooklyn hendtrua rters^rotesting- 
ihe removal ot his son from full-time preKti-I 
ing services. According to Penton, his #on wa"s- 
six-tenths of an .hour short of the required 

fireaching time because ol college studies and 
ami l y r espo nsibilitie s, and l he letter urged, 



the apocalypse and of -speaking out against 
preaching work. The letter asked the Kings to 
an end a dis fellowship hearing the next we ek. 

The Mings' said they sent the ir letter of 
resignation by registered mail before the hear- " ' 
ing, but Mrs. Kling was disfellowshipped for 
"apostasy/' Or turning away from God. 

l ami-; Kling -aid that he and his wife had 
been considering resignation for three years — 
"You just don't walk away from something 
that's been your whole life" — but. that, con, 
gregation charges weren't valid. 

The disfellowshipped person who visited 
the couple's Drexel Heights home was a teen- 
ager thrown oul of the congregation for smok- 
ing, Mrs, -Kling said, and the only time she - 
publicly referred to the "greai crowd" was 
when a group ol eighth-graders she taught. aL 
the New World Educational Center private 
school asked her about it. 

"All 1 did was point oula verse of the Bible 
and-tokl-thena-to-d£Cffle for-themselves. The 



wofEed pan time as a voTuTffeer'ieacher atthe " 
school. ■ - T 

Valencia Congregation _elders would.rjqt 
comment on Mrs, "Kling's disfellowshippmg, 

, but elder-Roy E.-Limow said, '^We begged and . 
pleaded with Mary to stop these things." Lin- 
tow^pd, elder Darrell G^Kupelian likened the 
Kling matter to a family dispute. "Would you 

-want-me-lo^oome^ftio^yauphome-and-pryHntp - 
personal life?" Lintow asked. 

The couple sees Mrs. Kling's only real of- 
fense as disloyalty to the Watchtower Society. 

"They are probably trying to Keeii people in 
subjection," Kling said, Ids hands clasped 
around his Bible. "If this is the case, they are 
doing a great job." The Klings are not, plan, 
rung any^aciion against the congregation, he ' 
said. 

"If people will believe an organization in- 
stead of me, after knowing me all my life, then 
it doesn't matter, A lawsuit caa't .bringmy 
name back.", : . " '-■ ' 



"The WhOle'tWng IS verTcarefuIly scrillin- 
i eoey-tte - anid. "There must - bo eyewitn esses^- 



accusing someone, and Jhey have to be credi- 
ble and truthful, Each congregation Is individ- 
ually-r-esponsible-for handling its own cases." _-■!■ 

In Phoe nix thin gs aren't so placMi_Lfitlej3___' 
obtained by the Citizen show mat David T. 
Brown received\notice of his disfellowship- i 
merit on Jan. 2, even though he had resigned \ 
-from Phocnix-s-Encani'o congregation on Aug. 
_.S, 1980. He said he never was told of any Judi- 
cial action against him, nbr was he ever con— ( 

fronted with any charges —both ol which JSVr^J l 

say they arejcripturally bound™ do. r _."' 

"I sent copies of my. resignation letter to C' 

. friends at the Brooklyn headquarters," he ! 

said. '^Ij.vanW to explain to them why I wa s 

" leaving and vfjiat. I had found inrtfoBlble." i 

. Thin 'Wos apparently enough for the Watch- i 

tower Society to single hi" ^at, he said. i 



school-is run mostly. by Jehovah's Witnesses, 



"1 think they are trying to make ah exam? 
pie of people who left the .fold , . jne_congrega- 
tion accepted my resignation; and then (En- 

^-ss-,,., =- 1K — it™™ "'"ca.hto elder) Rdv Horton told me the 

The other 20 JW congregations in TflBEon-^- L [ V ga ^ir^iEuTl 



the society to have more" sympathy. Ttje only 
reply was a two-paragraph directive to 
just his thinking." he said. 



The controversy continued r^and Penton and 
two other, elders — congregational leaders — 
at Lethbridge's Lakeview confrregstion re- 
signed, he said. About 60 others left Lake- 
view's three congregations, but only he was 
disfellowshipped, he said 

"The&doij't Mve the guts to dis fellowship^ 
_evejyone who_lefI^ -Pinion said._im_wiiuld..L 



make them look like what they are: a ru- 
ne longer~aT-cepts the _ JW's .belief that only 
l«;tW0 will reach heaven. 

John* Poole, one of the Uskeview elders who 
resigned In support of-*Penton, has helped 
begin a Bible study group called the Intema- 
_ tional Christian ■ Bible Students Associati on 
(ICBSA), a name similar to that oi the early 
JW organization, Penton said about 35 people . 
■i attend . the" groupls *9ekfy bible 41 udies-in.the^- 
■> Lethbridge area,-artd .the-fGBSA began-pub-r^J 
lishlngjts own Hterature last-week. — 



Penton said that since news of his suit 

i ap ^ gai h-hghssf t t-i-i tul l atli. s 6»d ' |) ti fl n < L trtty 

daily from JWs all over the world 



£3^gs-e4-^csett^id^ey^OTrtiirlow 
if brother-Waw Penton's lawsuit Influenced 

■^-the-Valencia congregation i n diafello wshjp 
Mrs, Kling, but they think her treatment was....' 

. wrong. 

"■According to the Bible, they (the cong're- 
-*"T0ngdDv■ 
James 



eaTiont'muit con front us_ wljh our ^wrdng 
ing' three times, and theyTid not,""^ 

Klingsaid. 

^-^ B i e t Oh i g g rec^wdarTeTter from threeoT 




, take action against me," 

Horto.ii declined to comment. 
1- Brown has sent letters ol protest to the con- 



gregation and the Governing Body but I us lurf — — 
no response, he said. His personal life has suf- 
fered. ■" ■, ■ L. 



"My wife. is still a Witn'es"s7'TjesaltJ:^e. 2 
are elbse, but we avoid the topic of religion^ I" 
have had some dealings with Witnesses at— — 
work, but almost all of my old friendships $re '. 
gone, and I have been subject to some unkind . 
tfeatmpnl ^ - .— T - . . 

try not to be bitter. I have to admit that I 
treated people like that and that I believed ail 

lft[lg? a L ~ ^-^^ —.. "l.. r ■■ ' "'—■■ ■■!-■■ 

There was something of a JW jsciiisin In 
Phoenix In 1978. Chuck EvenBoh", "a former 
elder at the city's Pleasant Valley congrega- 
tion,' said he resigned and ttpt v about 30 others.. - - 
did likewise, but no one' was disfellowshipped. 
"We begged the.body of elde r s to pick u p th e ir ' ■ . 
Bibles and discuss pur reasons for leaying wlttf. 
iSt^^eBsoh^aUl^TiwifrefwetP — ! — 



■ *Evenfiini*aid'4ie-iirid--the-otheps-ho!d-fiiHi r 
formal weekly Bible study, jahd some -have - 
juined fundamentalist churches. Their dispute, 
witi the JWs was primarily over the Witness 
beli ef that C hri sLs-deatb' 



AP htatrphQUi 



$m$S.1$tgt rmmei^otllsprrtof-^hovalt's WibffiswrrettpSl; 



Some 400 people were ■ converted jt the W9 ititemalJonaLcjim'e 
-^jrVsie* W)rtrCf(J's5Bea Stadium, whtchattracted.S^WIJWs. 



"1 would ask questions, and no one would r 
answer theni. Wheii I resigned, 1 told them I : ; 

wotild-sue th e m If th ey-di sf el luwshippett itie," 

te^eaiitr- * ; Vv ~ ; *" ' L -. ■ ' ■: i i T?7~*Zizr''. 
-— ^-tot-otj^estiavt'teeh told about me, and '■; . ' 
.^lt'j created a lot of problems. For a long time—" 
rny.ffllks.and mv wife's pare nts wouldn t even 
t alk t o us," he jiaitl ' . ' . : — ^ — i - ._■. — — ~ 

__Eaensoithdsts-6rweekiy-Satufday fellgibjts - " 
' adlQ-prjgram_oiLKXE<i, .feut' he' said he" 
oesn't use i t to r each Witnesses,^ He said he ' 
has met secretly with some - Phoe n ix e l dtrs . » 
and set up a recorded phone message for Wit- 
nesses, hut h e thinks preac hin g zo.the;n " 
„mq're Tharmlhan good, =" ■ ■ -■-'■ , 

- "That's the worst thing anyone can do. Wit- 
nesses have a persecution complex. If anyone 
^raitatkrihemf ihey're-stire tiiey'te jfgiii; ■" 
only way these people will eve f leave th 
ganization or cause It to change Is to accept 
Christ as their personal savior " ^ 



»t 



X22L, 



7*W3fV_ 






Hi t 



±t= 



r-«L: 



son on any spiritual or social level reflects 
loyalty to God's standards and obedience 
to his command at 1 Corinthians 5:11, 13. 
This is consistent with Jesus' advice that 
such a person he considered in the same 
way as "a man of the nations" was viewed 
by the Jews of that time. For some time 
after the apostles died, those professing 
Christianity evidently followed the Biblical 
procedure.* But how many churches to- 
day comply with God's clear directions in 
this regard? 

THOSE WHO DISASSOCIATE THEMSELVES 

13 A Christian might grow spiritually 
weak, perhaps because of not studying 
God's Word regularly, having personal 
problems or experiencing persecution. 
(1 Cor. 11:30; Rom. 14:1) Such a one 
might cease to attend Christian meetings. 
What is to be done? Recall that the apos- 
tles abandoned Jesus on the night of his 
arrest. Yet Christ had urged Peter, "When 
once you have returned, strengthen your 
brothers [who also abandoned Jesus]." 
(Luke 22:32) Hence, out of love Christian 
elders and others might visit and help the 
one who has grown weak and inactive. 
(1 Thess. 5:14; Rom. 15:1; Heb. 12:12, 
13) It is another matter, though, when a 
person repudiates his being a Christian 
and disassociates himself. 

14 One who has been a true Christian 



* Ecclesiastical historian Joseph Bingham writes con- 
cerning the early centuries: "The discipline of the 
church consisted in a power to deprive men of all the 
benefits and privileges of baptism, by turning them out 
of the society and communion of the church, . . . and 
every one shunned and avoided them in common con- 
versation, partly to establish the church's censures and 
proceedings against them, and partly to make them 
ashamed, and partly to secure themselves from the 
danger of contagion." ". . . no one was to receive 
excommunicated persons Into their houses, nor eat at 
the same table with them; they were not to converse 
with them familiarly, whilst living; nor perform the 
funeral obsequies for them, when dead, , . . These 
directions were drawn up upon the model of those rules 
of the apostles, which forbade Christians to give any 
countenance to notorious offenders. "—The Antiquities 
of the Christian. Church, pp. 880, 891. 



might renounce the way of the truth, stat- 
ing that he no longer considers himself to 
be one of Jehovah's Witnesses or wants 
to be known as one. When this rare event 
occurs, the person is renouncing his stand- 
ing as a Christian, deliberately disassociat- 
ing himself from the congregation. The 
apostle John wrote: "They went out from 
us, but they were not of our sort; for if 
they had been of our sort, they would have 
remained with us." — 1 John 2:19. 

15 Or, a person might renounce his place 
in the Christian congregation by his ac- 
tions, such as by becoming part of an 
organization whose objective is contrary 
to the Bible, and, hence, is under judg- 
ment by Jehovah God. {Compare Revela- 
tion 19:17-21; Isaiah 2:4.) So if one who 
was a Christian chose to join those who 
are disapproved of God, it would be fitting 
for the congregation to acknowledge by 
a brief announcement that he had dis- 
associated himself and is no longer one 
of Jehovah's Witnesses. 

16 Persons who make themselves "not of 
our sort" by deliberately rejecting the 
faith and beliefs of Jehovah's Witnesses 
should appropriately be viewed and treated 
as are those who have been disfellowshiped 
for wrongdoing, 

COOPERATING WITH THE CONGREGATION 

17 Though Christians enjoy spiritual fel- 
lowship when they discuss or study the 
Bible with their brothers or interested 
persons, they would not want to have such 
fellowship with an expelled sinner (or one 
who has renounced the faith and beliefs 
of Jehovah's Witnesses, disassociating 
himself). The expelled person has been 
'rejected,' being "self -condemned" because 
of "sinning," and those in the congregation 
both accept God's judgment and uphold it. 



13. What should be done in the case of a person who 
becomes weak and Inactive? 

14. How might a person disassociate himself? 

THE WATCKTOWER — SEPTEMBER 15, 1961 



15, 16. (a) How else might a person become disassoci- 
ated? (b) How should Christians view and deal with 
disassociated persons? 

17, 18. What is involved in our cooperating with the 
congregation as to disfellowshiping? 

23 



David T. Brown 

5017 N. 23 Ave. Apt 3 
Phoenix AZ 85015 
August 5, 1980 

Body of Elders, Encanto Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses 
Phoenix, Arizona 

Gentlemen: 

Following the procedure outlined on pages 61 and 62 of the book " Pay Attention to Yourselves 
and to All the Flock " I am hereby providing written notice of my desire to voluntarily 
disassociate myself from the Encanto Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses and also from any 
association with the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. I have arrived at this decision after 
much prayer, Bible reading, and intensive personal study. I can no longer believe that the 
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society is God's visible earthly organization. 

I have no animosity towards anyone of Jehovah's Witnesses. In my 15 years of association with 
the Witnesses I have known many wonderful people. Many have been true friends and very kind 
and helpful, even in a material way. I would say all of them were sincere. They have not been 
perfect, but neither have I been perfect. They are still in my thoughts and prayers. 

I know this hurts Doris very much. Even though it hurts to be the cause of her pain I feel I must 
proceed with this voluntary disassociation. Since my wife desires to remain a Witness I ask the 
congregation not to forget her. I know you will do what you can to help her, but I wanted you to 
know that I will not oppose such aid. 

I request when announcement is made to the congregation of my action that it is made clear that 
this is a voluntary action on my part. You are free to show this letter to anyone you wish as an 
explanation why I have taken this action. 

Sincerely, 

David T. Brown 



September 25, 1980 

Dear Friends: 

I am enclosing some scriptures and some thoughts that helped me to see that I did not have "the 
Truth." (John 14:6) These have helped me to come to Him. (John 6:68, 69) He invites you to 
come to Him, too. (Matthew 11:28-30) 



Page 1 
Hebrews 7:3 
This is speaking of how Melchizedek is a type of the Son of God: 

"In being fatherless, motherless, without genealogy, having 
neither a beginning of day_s_ nor an end of life , but having 
been made like the Son of God, he remains a priest 
perpetually." 

In what way is the Son of God without beginning of days or end of life? 

John 1:1 

"In the beginning the Word was ..." 

Is this saying that the Word existed before creation? That, in the 
beginning, place it where you may, the Word already existed? 
Compare the New English Bible rendering of John 1:1-4: 

"When all things began, the Word already was. The Word dwelt 
with God, and what God was, the Word was. The Word, then, was 
with God at the beginning, and through him all things came to 
be; no single thing was created without him. All that came to 
be was alive with his life, and that life was the light of 



Colossians 1:15 



'.- 



Can the expression "firstborn of all creation" have another explanation 
than meaning that Jesus was God's first creation? Again the New English 
Bible (Colossians 1:15-20): 

"He is the image of the invisible God; his is the primacy over 
all created things. In him everything in heaven and on earth 
was created, not only things visible but also the invisible 
orders of thrones, sovereignties, authorities, and powers: the 
whole universe has been created through him and for him. And 
he existed before everything , and all things are held together 
in him. He is, moreover, the head of the body , the church. He 
is its origin, the first to return from the dead, to be in all 
things alone supreme . For in him the complete being of God, by 
God's own choice, came to dwell. Through him God chose to 
reconcile the whole universe to himself, making peace through 
the shedding of his blood upon the cross — to reconcile all 
things, whether on earth or in h*aven, through him alone." 

Compare Genesis 41:51,52 with Jeremiah 31:9; Psalm 89:27. On Colossians 
1:19, compare with Colossians 2:9 in the Emphatic Diaglott, Byington, 
and other recent versions. Also see Emphatic Diaglott (page 889) under 
"Firstborn." At Colossians 1:15 "Firstborn" is a statement of position, 
not priority in time. 



Page 2 

Revelation 3:14 

Similarly, can the expression "the beginning of the creation by God" 
("the beginning of the creation of the God" - Kingdom Interlinear) have 
the meaning given in the New International Version?: 

"These are the words of the Amen, the faithful and true 
witness, the ruler of God's creation." 

(Compare Revelation 1:5). New Testament Greek lexicons give "origin" as 

another meaning for beginning. 

Proverbs 8:22-31 

Can we be positive this applies to Christ? (Read Proverbs chapters 1-9. 
Wisdom and foolishness are contrasted.) Does Proverbs 8:3,4 apply to 

Christ? 

If we can say Proverbs 8:22 applies to Christ — many versions translate 
it Jehovah "possessed" me, etc. After all, when has Jehovah been without 
wisdom? See Green's Interlinear Old Testament, NIV, NASB. 

Hebrews 1:10-12 

This passage quotes Psalm 102:25-27 (LXX) and applies it to Christ: 

"And: 'You at the beginning, Lord, laid the foundations of 
the earth itself, and the heavens are the works of your hands. -. 
They themselves will perish, but. you yourself are to remain 
continually; and just like an outer garment they will all grow 
old, and you will wrap them up just as a cloak, as on outer 
garment; and they will be changed, but you are the same, and 
your years will never run out.'" 

In Psalm. 102 this statement is definitely speaking about Jehovah. Does 
this identify Jesus as Jehovah? 

Other examples: 

1 Peter 2:3 says: 

"... provided you have tasted that the Lord is kind." 

This is shown to be speaking about Jesus in the next verse (1 Peter 
2:4): "Coming to him as to a living atone, rejected, it is true, by men, 
but chosen, precious with God." 1 Peter 2:3 is a reference to Psalm 34:8 
(LXX): "Taste and see that Jehovah ia good ..." [Comparison of the 
interlinear with the Greek Septuagint (LXX) shows the phrases to be 
identical . ] 

Is Peter calling Jesus "Jehovah" in this place? 



The Kingdom Interlinear Translation 



COLOSSIAXS 1:16—21 



£**.u« tcG 6tou tq£ doparou, JT-pt:TCTo*o^ 
image of the. God Ihe invisible, _£-3itn>m 

6ti tv <3'JTi 

because in_ Mm 



■of all creation, 



it v £.*. created the alt iibings) in the heavens 
^lil TTfc >fjtL "to: ^DOrd KOI 



kcu 



Tnc. fnc, TO 

and upon the earth, the (tbiogiV -Tiiible and 



896 

tbe image of tbe 1n- 
tisible God, the first- 
born of all creation; 
16 because br means 
of him all [other] 
things were created 
in the heavens and 
upon the earth, the 



TO 

the (things) 

KUPIOTnTEC, tiTE 



dopenn, e'te 6-:-=i<cn crnr. ■ things Tisihls and the 

invisible. ■Rhetiier thrones or I things invisible, no 
e'te E^ouoriar | matter whether they 



opxa 



lordships oi eov«iTune«ts «r authorities; j are thrones or lord- 

tct Tidvrn 6t* ai/rou tron sir, adrov ships or governments 

tbe all (things) through him and into 

Sasorctr II pea? atWoq eemv 

Htm been created; and be is 

tt&viw *tri id ntwra is 

all Itbingsl ami the all {Uiuibs] in 

icmv 



TTpO 

before 



CCi/TO) 
him 



ouvEOTrjKEV, 18 kqi en/roc. 

it has stood together. and be 

KapaUi tou erugcrTOE;, -"jc frticATio-fac/ 

head citfae body, of the ecctesia; 

o<; ecrnv i\ dpxr), Trptjrdroicoc; ex 

who is the beginning. firstborn out cf 



or authorities. All 

[other] tilings have 
been created through 
htm and lor him. 
IT Also, be is before 
f] | all {other] things and 
the ! by means of him all 



TrfKjrreuwv, 

holding tbe tint place-, 



[other] things were 
made to exist IS and 
he is the head of the 
bod?, the congrega- 
tion. He is the begin- 
ning, the first-born 
from the dead, that 
he might become the 

IB SBUi JE £S 

19 because 



•ram VEKpuv, iva VEvrrrai ev 

the dead tones] , in order that might become in 

Tfckriii olho-; 

all (things ! he 

W -oti eh cnjrti gC6V m r| ge » irov to t^"*"* ■*■ 

because in him' he thought well all tbe I things 

TrXrfpuna ninoiKTitrap 20 rai 6t* auroO j [Qod] saw good for 

fullness to dwell down and through him j all fullness to dwell in 

diroiccmiAAa|at "id Trdyra ef[j auidu, j hire, 20 and through 

to reconcile the alt jtbinesl Into trim, him to reconcile g^airi 

itpnycTrorrioac S>n toG atyoroq tou to himself all [other] 
having made peace throu^i tbe blood of the! things by making 

trtaupoo airrou. Si* caVrou thr. Ip*-»" through the 

atake .of htm, ttrough him whether I blood [he shed] Oil 

Td *& ttk ^ ette xd miS£?S£JSSK£ 

the (things upon the -earth or the (thlngsl in ■ tnawer whether trie? 
™; otipawTs. 1" "»J^ upon 

tbe heavens: t*» earth or the 

{ thinirs in ths heavens. 



TtpUTOTOMOC OV gTajAwTi — 1. lit. 
Mt 1: 25 v J.; Li 2: 7; Hb lis 
2S.— 2. fie, of Christ Tto 8; 29; 
Col J: 15. IS: Hb 1 : 6; Rv 1: 6; 
2: 8 T.I.— Of men Kb 12: 23.* 



AS ^JaoS-i^.R^Z dic tionary of New Testament 
iforrls. W. E. Tine*. Thomas Helson Publishers. 
Pages 454 , 435. 

FIRST-BEGOTTEN, FIRSTBORN 

FROTOTOKQS (irpurroroKos), firstborn (from protos, first, and tikto, 
to beget), is used of Christ as born of the Virgin Mary . Luke 2:7; further . 
in His relationship to the Father, expressing His priority to. and pr e- 
- eminence over, creation, not in the sense of being the first to be bom. 
It is used occasionally of superiority of position in the O.T. ; see 
Ex. 4 : 22 ; Deut. 21 : 16, 17, the prohibition being against the evil of 
assigning the privileged position of the firstborn to one born subsequently 
to the first child. 

The five passages in the N.T. relating to Christ may be set forth chrono- 
logically thus : (a) J3oL 1 : II. where His eternal relationship with the 
Father is in view, and the clause means both that He was the Firstborn, 
before all creation and that He Himself p roduced creation (the genitive 
case being objective, as ver. 16 makes clear ) ; (6) Coi. 1 : 18 and Rev. I '■ 5> 
m reference to His resurrection ; (c) Rom. 3 : 29, His position in relation- 
arar> to the Chcrds ; ffl Heb-. 1 ; &, R.V., H» Seeead AeWeirt (the &*. 
^when He again bringeth in," puts "again" in the right place, the 
contrast to His First Advent, at His Birth, being implied) ; cp. Psa. &q : 37- 
The word is used in the plural, in Heb. 11 : 28, of the firstborn sons in to* 
families of the Egyptians, and in 12 : 23, of the members of the Church. ! 

Note ; With (a) cp. John 1 : 30, " He was before me," lit., ' He was 
v-, t iprUos) of me, 1 i.e., ' in regard to rae,' txpressbj all that is involved 
in His pre-existence and priority. 

Hev. ?;14 (Ki ngd om Inter 1 ine ax Trans 1 a 1 1 o n ) ; 



S horter L e x i con of the Greek 
K e y. Testa ment . P, Wilbur 
Gingrich: University of Chicago 
Press. 1957, 1965. Page 190. 



EKcX- 



dyi't><t> 

■1 

TaSc 



And to the angel oi the in X^odjcea 



FIBST. 1. TVliji 1; Sthtt lO-tn. In (la* 

mm. ind Clulw xt» •e^rJ AJaa. 

\*a tt of tre«4lHK7 : so Pict "^!J* 
hhsiftU Eli. pint dc ehitf or iicneri. 

/ Vtr.t, V 

[FIHiT-BOaN n 'Tre*TH»aoTTT* d% 

\ wen, ci«unn" mMj bu "ckiti &J 

' tta wluHt crtitloa." Col L I J. r 

FIHST-rBUITS Hm I1t« rtn. nraJuu 

at tlM land nf lir«f. «vn. arfoaQrtd 

tbe L4r>J"s turawenr. *n<l- » MUft **rs 

iie?s.t C& UlSL EllM. TUiljL Xi. '*•}- 
t.'hrlft Li ciltoil tho Hr*i-' r 'nU «f 'hfcTl 
iLar (tfnt. ] r=>r. ir. I" 1 : irA ih* 
tiouly of S^otMJUU. It* fr*t-*r*itd. -J 
kehtia i roc. nt 11. 



of ecrlasia write The-but (lhin£E} ta (ayiDC the 

'Ap^v, 6 (jdDTuc 6 ttioto;; kcm * dJitjOivot;, 
Aeim, the win^e^ the faithiul and the ttae, 

KTIOEU!; TOO &o0, 
cre^tiun of the Ood, 



J\ Apm Tnc, 

the t»Finivirig oi the 



14 "And to the 
angel of the con* 
gregauorr to, La-o-di- 
ce'a write: These arf 
the thines that the 
Amen says, the falih- 
ful anc true witness, 



tfie beei-ani'-ie- nf tVu° 



creation by God, 



The Emphatic Maglott . Ben- 
jamin Wilson; Watchtower 
Bible and Tract Society. 
1942 edition, -oage 889. 



Compare Hev. 1:5 (K.I.T.): 

5 not dro; Szni 

and froTT. . 

, j from Jesus Christ, 

"Incrou XpicTOo, c iiapivc JT'^7°S' '■ "The Faithful Wit- 

Jesus Christ, lb* J the V?imess the TaUbful, >- ne J ~; „ ' " — 

. a, : -ness." "T he first-bam 
6 ttf«to TOI ^ T cw ^.fftpar w T^J iren, the dead. " and 

" The Ruler of the 
j tings of the earth." 



the 



first bom 



clthr dead ioaes) 



JQikt. ci the i^gs of toe eaith. 



OLplfV :. f)5, tf| — 1. betrinnina . origin 
Mt 19:4;24: 8; Mk Is 1; 13: 8; 
Lk 1:2; J 1: 1; 15: 27; Ac 11: 15. 
apyi\v Ticiv^dviiv begin Hb 2: 3. 
o-roixtto Tfi? d- efementary pnit- 
ctples 5: 12, o Tfj5 6. toO X. Xoyos 
ctt-nw-iitory Christian teaching 6: 
1. d. xfis inrotrniaMiJS original 
conviction 3: 14. A. t5v on/uflcov 
first of the eigits J 2: 11. 
ttiv ctpyrV = oAtias of aK 8: 25. Fig 
Col 1 : 18. First cause Rv 3: 14 . 
Concrete = comer Ac 10: 11. — 
g. ruler, authority Lk 12: 11 
20: 20; Tit 3: L Of angels and 
demons Ro 8: 38: 1 Cor 15: 24 
Co] 2: JO. 15. — 3. Rah. domain 
sphere of influence J d 6 . 

ifXTiTO?. o0, i> either leader, ruler, 
prince or originator, founder; the 
former is more likely for Ac 5 
31 ; for 3: 15 either is pass. The 
latter is more likelv for Hb 2 
10; 12; 2.* 



£pXiTf>(xXivoc, ou, A head waiter, 
butler; in the context of J 2; 8f 
prob. toa&tmasUr, master o/ the 
feast.* 

ipX 4 ^ — 1« *"t- rvie. ' w - r? en - ^k 
10: 42; Ro 15: 12. — 2. mid. 
begin Mt 4: 17; Lk 15: 14; 24: 
27; Ac 8: 35; 10: 37. At times &. 
is pleonastic and adds little to 
the meaning of the sentence , 
e.g. Cm f^p^crro o "Ittff. Troitiv = 
simply toltat Jesus did rather 
than what Jesits began to do Ac 
Is 1. Cf. Mi 26: 37; Lk 7: 15, 
24 , 38. 

apx^^i ovroc,, i ruler, lord, frince 
fit 20: 25; Ac 4: 26; Bvl:i- 
Of authorities, officials gener., 
both Jewish Mt 9: 16; Lk 8: 41; 
14: 1; 18: IS; J 3: 1 ; Ae 3: 17 
and Gentile Ac 16: 19. Of evil 
spirits Mt S: 34; 12: 24; Lk 11: 
15; J 12: 33; 14: 30; Eph 2: 2. 
The 6px°vres of 1 Cor 2: 6. 8 



Sho rter Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. 
P. Wilbur Gingrich. University of Chicago 
Press. 1957, 19^5. Page 29. 



"♦And uatc- the aogtl of the church oi the 
Laodicean* write: The* things jaith the Amen, 
the faithful and true witness, the be gj tump of 
the creation of God; ■* I know thy worts, lhat 
thou art neither cold oor hot: 1 would tbou. 
wert cold or hot. IS So then because rhou art 



Rev. 5:14 (w.i.v.) 



t* "To the angel of the church: in Laodicea write: 

These are the words of the Amen, the faith- 
ful and true witness, th* rater oi God's crea- 
tion. 1*1 know jour deeds, that if on are neither 
cold nor hot I wish you were either one or 
the other! in So, because you are lukewarm — 



The Interlinear Hebrew-fire e k -Jft igl i s h Bible. Vol 3. 
Jay Green. Associated Publishers and Authors. 1978. 

PRO VERBS 9:21 1546 



Justice; (31) m thai 111 
may causa those who lov» 
Ma to Inherit riches; and I 
will nil op rhalr ireaturlas. 
122] Jehovah wagaaaaj 
Ma In the beginning of Hii 
way. belore Hi* works from 
then. [291 I was sat up 
from everlasting; from trie 
b aginn inq, borors th* earth 
ever was . [24 1 Whan there 
wnre no depths, I w»» ipun 
out; wharf there wan no 
■wring* heavy (wirhl 
water. {261 Before th* 
mountain* war* tattled: ha- 
lo re tha hill*. I w m spur 
out: [36] before Ho had 
mad a tha earth and tha 
ffaldi, or lha highnst part 
of lha dust of tha world. 
(27) Whan H* prepared (ha 
tmaveni, I was there; whan 
He sal a circle on tha f sea of 
* i tmm Beat whe n H e an 
the clcntdi above: whan Ka 
mads thu strong fountain! 
of the deep; [391 whan Ha 
gave to tha see its limit, that 
the waters shouldn't trans- 
uros! His command* whan 
He dacrw-d tha foundation* 
of tha earth; [30] then I 
*•! al His side, lika a master 
workmen; and 1 was (His) 
dalights daily, rejoicing *( 
ovary time bafora Him; 
131 1 rejoicing in the world, 
Hii earth; and My delights 
Iwerel with the eon* of 



21 



i" t -l *■>■ - \ i i l *•' , -i i \ i ■ II . T 

will I (heir end ^wealth my cam* to ,)u|trea 

up fill ,rtc r Bhousn tovnrt inharft to 

H obiso : iko r^stitt crp isn rrute-i -sp rfvr 

w r *\ n Tr jf , =K' a : - j ■ -r|n. * n 

From from hi* bafora His the in possessed Jeho- 

B*jBeaaaaa1 it " n worki . ,way of traginninn ma »ah 



whan 
no 



I .depth! When 
.travailed no wart 



tha aneianf from tha ftom waa I 
.earth of times ,becjtnnlng flip sat 



th* barfotw war* tha Bafora .vratari haairy springs 
.hlllt .tank mountains with 

26 , San nhBjj ttfii mam p« ,m kS-n» : *rbhn 



tha 
.world 



tha lha and 
of dud of head 



lha and the had Ha not While 
r flnld« earth made 



I 

.travailed 



11 i^xa iDiin yvh? sri ijsna "3K o^ B%»J tJ^ns 

Hii in lha tha on a His In I there the His In 

flrmim -dee*> of fee* circle Inscribing ;twasl heaven* preparing 

29 T[5n i of? vsiuz lornn mr? Ttt?^ S?sp Of^rrtf 

hts for Hii in lha th* making in from th* 

.limit aaa the jetting ,-deap of springs srruni) .above clouds 

30 6sk rrnw :p« tsio ipna vtrray vh d'di 

t * /» : pi | ■-- it - ; j a- : - 1~ j • - ■. 



(etl 
.side His 



I end 
was 



the faund- 

;e3rth"s aqions 



His in pass should not that 
ifacreeing .mouth His over waters thr 



: rjrbaa nc^ r^rpvo Bt; i or d'sttM st^ik) pan 



-tlma 



at befora 
Him 



rejoicing (by) day 
jday 



I His! 
delights 



I and work- a 
was .man 



31 



:QTt5 ^a-nx %, swyp) tshj* Sana npn^D 



.man the Iwera) 
of sons with 



mv and 
Oatlghti 



His 
earth 



the in 
world 



rfljoicing 



And reiJw *^***«'a** - ^ofihc *ia J f le aa aa a 
(KKXTpjias ypa^e» m 

Tafia Ae/n o dv?". i ftofrrus- i 
These thui** U}1 1ft* *tnrn. lh« 'BrLutu - 

■riOTO? "roi (WrfAwtr, if *Pxh rr }*' <"'«'«» , * T 
■huWM *^at irw iix «■*■] =f :!>• eraaae ai 

rev Aroar 15 oSa' ooo ri. ipya, an 
ofCwl: linn rfihc* um wra. Ihat 



Rev. 3*14 with interlinear translation by 
Greek scholar Alfred Marshall, from The 
Z ond e rvan Parallel Mew Testament in Greek 
and English . Zondervan Bible Publishers. 



Page 3 
The prophecy of Isaiah 40:3-5: 

"Listen! Someone is calling out in the wilderness: 'Clear up 
the way_ of Jehovah, you people 1 Make the highway for~Su7~God 
through the desert plain straight. Let eveT?~valle7~be~TaIiid 
up, and every mountain and hill he made low. And the knobby 
ground must become level land, and the rugged ground a valley 
plain. And the glory of Jehovah will certainly be revealed, 
and all flesh must see it together, for the very mouth of 
Jehovah has spoken it. 1 " 

Matthew 3:1-3, Mark 1:1-4, Luke 3:2-6, and John 1:23 apply this to John 
the Baptist s preparatory work before the ministry of Jesus . Is John the 
Baptist calling Jesus Jehovah? 

Isaiah 8:13-15: 

" Jehovah of armies . . . And he must become as a sacred 
place; but as a stone to strike against and as a rock over 
which to stumble to both houses of Israel, as a trap and as a 
snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem. And manq among them 
will be certain to stumble and to fall and be broken, and to 
be snared and caught." 

1 Peter 2:8: "and 'a stone of stumbling and a rock-mass of offense. 1 
These are stumbling because they are disobedient to the word. To this 
very end they were also appointed." (Compare also Luke 20:18) If Jesus 
is Jehovah, would that not be a stone of stumbling for the Jews? 

Isaiah 8:12b, 13: 

"The object of their fear you men must not fear, nor must you 
tremble at it. Jehovah of armies - he is the one whom you 
should treat as holy ..." 

1 Peter 3:14b, 15: "However, the object of their fear do not you fear, 
neither become agitated. But sanctify the Christ as Lord in your 
hearts . . ." 

Joel 2:32 and Romans 10:9-15: 

"And everyone who calls on Jehovah's name will come off safe; 
for on Mount Sion and in Jerusalem there will be~escape,~ai~ 
Jehovah has said, and among the survivors whom Jehovah calls." 
(Byington) 

"Because if by your mouth you acknowledge Jesus to be Lord 
and in your heart you believe that God raised him fronTthe 
dead, you will be saved . For it i* with a heart believinq is 
done leading to righteousness, and it is with a mouth 
acknowledgement is made leading to salvation. For the text 



Page 4 

says "Anyone who believes in him will not be put to shame'; 
for there is no distinction between Jew and Greek, for the 
same one is Lord of all , rich toward all who call on him ; for 
'everyone who shall call on the name of the Lord ("the name of 
Jehovah" - NWT) shall be saved."' 

Compare Acts 2: 21,33 ,36, 38. For the identity of the "him" in verse 11 
see Romans 9:33; 1 Peter 2:6. Who is being referred to in Romans 
10:13-15? 

Hebrews 1:6 

"But when he again brings his First-born into the inhabited 
earth, he says: 'And let all Goe^' s angels worship him.'" 

This is quoted from Psalm 97:7 and Deuteronomy 32:43 (in the Septuagint 
and also in the Dead Sea scroll of Deuteronomy) and the "him" referred 
to is Jehovah God. Yet Hebrews applies it to Jesus Christ. Does this 
identify Jesus as God, worthy of worship as the Father is worthy of 
worship? Does this identify Jesus with Jehovah? Also, does the fact that 
all of the angels are commanded to worship him make Jesus not an angel, 
but superior to them? (compare Hebrews 1:4) 

The Father is Greater 

Can the scriptures that speak of the subordinating of the Son to the 
Father (like John 14:28; 1 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Corinthians 15:27,28, 
etc.) be explained by Jesus' voluntar y emptying of himself to take the 
form of a humble slave — as stated in Philippians 2:5-11?: 

"Have in you, each of you, this same mind as in Christ Jesus, 
who, when he was in the form of God, did not regard equality 
with God as a prize, but emptied himself , taking slave form , 
coming into the likeness of humanity; and, being found as it 
were a man in guise, he humbled himself to become obedient 
down to death, the death of a cross; for which very reason God 
raised him supremely high and granted him the name above every 
name , that at the name of Jesus every knee of what is in 
heaven and what is on earth and what is underground should 
bend and every tongue acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord , 
to the glory of God the Father ." (Byington) 

Compare Isaiah 45:22,23. 

Jesus is LORD! 

"For this reason I make it known to you that nobody speaking 
in the Spirit of God says 'Jesus is accursed,' and nobody can 
say 'Jesus is Lord' except in Holy Spirit." 1 Corinthians 12:3 

(Byington) 



Page 5 

Why does acknowledging Jesus to be Lord require the operation of God's 
Spirit? Do the implications of the statement "Jesus is Lord" stagger the 
human mind to require the help of the Holy Spirit? 

John 20:28 

"In answer Thomas said to him: 'My^ Lord and my God I" 

Was it proper for Thomas to make this statement? Is it proper for 
Christians today to make the same statement? 

Romans 8 ; 9 

"But you are not in flesh but in spirit, if God ' s Spirit does 
reside in you; but if anybody does not have Christ's Spirit , 
that man is not his." (Byington) 

What do the parallel expressions "God's Spirit" and "Christ's Spirit" 
indicate as to the relationship of the Father and the Son? 
Compare Acts 16:6,7: 

"And they went through Phrygian-Galatian country, being 
forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in the province 
of Asia, and came up to Mysia and tried to take a course into 
Bithynia but the Spirit of Jesus would not allow them; and 
they went past Mysia and down to Troas." (Byington) 

John 5:17,18 

"But he answered them: 'My_ Father has kept working until now, 
and I keep working.' On this account, indeed, the Jews began 
seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he 
breaking the Sabbath but he was also calling God his own 
Father, making himself equal to God." 

Is the apostle John saying that Jesus claimed equality with God? In 
verses 22 and 23 of the same chapter Jesus says: 

"For the Father judges no one at all, but he has committed all 
the judging to the Son, in order that all may honor the Son 
just as they honor the Father . He that does not honor the Son 
does not honor the Father who sent him." 

The New English Bible on these same 2 verses reads: 

"And again, the Father does not judge anyone, but has given 
full jurisdiction to the Son; it is his will that all should 
pay the same honor to the Son as to the Father . To deny honor 
to the Son is to deny it to the father who sent him." 

Can a created being receive the same honor as the Creator? 



Page 6 

Isaiah 9; 6 

"For there has been a child born to us, there has been a son 
given to us; and the princely rule will come to be upon his 
shoulder. And his name will be called Wonderful Counselor, 
Mighty God , Eternal Father, Prince of Peace." 

In the next chapter (Isaiah 10:20,21) it says: 

"And it will certainly occur in that day that those remaining 
over of Israel and those who have escaped of the house of 
Jacob will never again support themselves upon the one 
striking them, and they will certainly support themselves upon 
Jehovah , the Holy One of Israel, in trueness. A mere remnant 
will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the Mighty God." 

Who is this Mighty God? 

Luke 10; 22 

"All things have been delivered to me by my Father, and who 

the Son is no one knows but the Father ; and who the Father is, 

no one knows but the Son, and he" to whom the Son is willing to 
reveal him." 

Can the Son only be comprehended by the Father? Why? 

John 16:13-15 

"However, when that one arrives, the spirit of the truth. . . 
That one will glorify me, because he will receive from what is 
mine and will declare it to you. All the things that the 
Father has are mine . That is why I said he receives from what 
is mine and declares it to you." [Compare John 17:10.] 

What does Jesus mean that 'all things that the Father has are mine'? 
What does this show about their relationship? 

John 14:14 

"If you ask me anything in my name I will do it." (Byington) 
"If ever anything you should ask me in the name of me this I 

shall do." (Kingdom Interlinear). 
"If you ask an thing in my name, I will do it." (New World 

Translation) 

Why does the New World Translation leave out the word "me"? 

Is it proper to petition or ask Christ concerning things we desire? 



Page 7 
Comparing Scripture with Scripture 

Is John 12:40,41 a reference to Isaiah 6:3-5,10? 

Is Ephesians 4:7-10 a quotation and reference to Psalm 68:15-18? 
Who is referred to in Psalm 68 and in Ephesians? 

Is there parallelism in these titles and functions?: 

Jeremiah 11:20; 17:10; 20:12. Compare Revelation 2:23. 

2 Thessalonians 1:9. Compare Isaiah 2 i 21 (Septuagint) . 

Ps. 23:1; Isa, 40:1-11. Compare Jn 10(1-14; Heb. 13:20; 1 Pe. 2:25; 5:4 

Isaiah 40:3,9,10,11. Compare John 1:23; Revelation 3:11; 22:12,20. 

Isaiah 45:22,23. Compare Rom. 14:9-12; 2 Cor. 5:10; Philippians 2:10. 

Isaiah 43:3. Compare Acts 3:14. 

Revelation 4:9-11. Compare Revelation 5:6-14. 



CONCLUDING 9UESTIONS 

1] Is there any clear, direct statement in the Bible that says Jehovah 
created Jesus? 

2] Why are the New Testament writers #0 free in applying pasasages about 
Jehovah in the Old Testament to Christ? Can we do so today? 

3] Is there any clear, direct statement in the Bible that pointedly says 
Jesus is not Jehovah ? If the teaching that Jesus is not Jehovah is 
true, would we not expect such a statement or some sort of 
explanation for the N.T. writers application of the divine name to 
Jesus. 

4] Is there any clear, direct statement in the Bible that pointedly says 
Jesus is not God? (If you are using the New World Translation for 
your reply — be sure to compare it with versions like Byington, 
New International Version, New American Standard, etc.) 

5] Are there places in the Bible wher$ Christ is called Jehovah? 

6] Are there places in the Bible wher$ Christ is called God? 



'J 



IS THE HOLY SPIRIT A PERSON OR A FORCE? 



The scriptures tell us the Holy Spirit: 

I. Has Will: (1 Corinthians 12:11) "wills" 
"Forbids" and "Permits" - Acts 16:6, 7 
"Appoints" leaders - Acts 20:28 

II. Has Mind: (Romans 8:27? "minds" 
"Knows" - 1 Corinthians 2:11 
"Thinks" - Acts 15:28 

III. Has Feelings: (Isaiah 03:10) "feel hurt" 
"Outraged" - Hebrews 10:29 
"Saddened" - Ephesians 4:30 
"Love" - Romans 15:30 (cf. Romans 12:1) 

IV. Has Ability To Hear: (John 16:13) "hears" 

V. Has Speech: (1 Timothy 4:1) "says explicitly" 
"Spirit of Jehovah spoke" - 2 Samuel 23:2 
"Thus says the Holy Spirit" - Acts 21:11 
"The Holy Spirit aptly spoke" - Acts 28:25 
"What the Spirit say* to the congregations" 
- Revelation 2:7, U , 17, 29; 3:6, 13, 22 

VI. Has Self-Consciousness i (calls Himself "I") 
"The Spirit said... I,.." - Acts 10:19, 20 
"The Holy Spirit said... I..." - Acts 13:2 

VII. Personally Directs The Preaching Work: 
"I have called them.* 1 - Acts 13:2 
"Sent out by the Holy Spirit." - Acts 13:4 
"The Spirit told me to go..." - Acts 11:12 
"The Spirit said. . .Approach.. ." - Acts 8:29 
"...you are not the pnes speaking, but 
the Holy Spirit U." - Mark 13:11 

VIII. Treated As A Person: (or "mistreated") 
"Lied to" - Acts 5:3 
"Tempted" - Acts 5:9 
"Blasphemed" - Matthew 12:31 
"Spoken against" - Matthew 12:32 



IX. Functions As A Person: (could a force be ..,) 
"Another Helper" - John 14:16 
[Jesus Christ, our personal Helper, (1 John 2:1) promised to 
send Another (allon - "of the same kind") personal Helper to 
take his place on earth while he went to the Father.] 
One Who "Pleads" for us - Romans 8:26, 27 
[Our Helper on earth (the Spirit) pleads for us - exactly as 
Our Helper in heaven (the Christ) pleads for us (Romans 8:34) 
cf. Hebrews 7:25.] 

"God's Spirit Living in us" - Romans 8:9, 11 
[The Spirit who " lives in us" (James 4:5 - cf, Epheslans 3:17) 
makes us "the Temple of the Holy Spirit" (1 Corinthians 6:19) 
and also "the Temple of God" (1 Corinthians 3:16, 17).] 
"The Holy Spirit [who] will teach you" 
- Luke 12:12, 1 Corinthians 2:13, 1 John 2:27 
"That Person* [who] reminds you" - John 14:26 
"That Person* exposing the world" - John 16:8 
"That Person* testifying about Me [Christ], 
and you [twelve persons] also testify" 
- John 15:26, 27 also Acts 5:32 
X. Named "Jehovah": (2 Corinthians 3:17) 

*ekeinos - "that he" or "that male person" 

Early Christian writers taught the Holy Spirit is a Person. There 
is a statement or two by Justin Martyr and Hippo lytus that might 
seem to indicate otherwise, but a thorough reading of their 
writings reveals they viewed the Holy Spirit as a Person. The 
teaching that the Holy Spirit is not a Person is of comparative 
recent origin. Even Arius of the fourth century A.D., who was one 
of the first to deny the Deity of Christ, did not deny the 
personality of the Holy Spirit. 'The noblest of the Son's 
creations' was his viewpoint of the Spirit. 

It is true that in the pagan Greek language the word "spirit" is 
neuter in gender. However, God saw fit to use this universal 
language of the day to communicate His thoughts. W.E. Vine in his 
An Expository Dictionary of Hew T estament Words expresses some 
thoughts on this and also on the reason why the Greek words for 
"Holy Spirit" sometimes lack the definite article ("the"): 

"Sometimes the absence (of the definite article) is to be 
accounted for by the fact that Pi>euma (like Theos ) is 
substantially a proper name . . . The personality of the Spirit 
is emphasized at the expense of strict grammatical procedure in 
John 14:26; 15:26; 16:8,13,14, where the emphatic pronoun 
ekeinos , "He," is used of Him in the masculine, whereas the noun 
pneuma is neuter in Greek, while the corresponding word in 
Aramaic, the language in which our Lord probably spoke, is 
feminine (rucha, cf. Heb, ruach)" (pages 1076, 1077). 



IS GOD A TRINITY? 



The word "Trinity" does not appear in the Bible. Neither do words 
such as: "Bible," "Chronology," "Disfellowshipping," "Neutrality," 
"Organization," or "Theocracy." All of these terms have grown up to 
designate concepts taught (or thought to be taught) within the pages 
of "The Bible." 



Does the "Bible" associate the Father, Son, and Spirit in such a 
way as to indicate they form a "Trinity"? Early Christians who 
were taught directly by Jesus Christ were , . . 



chosen: 



by God, the Father 

through sanctif ication of the Spirit 
for obedience to Jesus Christ 
- 1 Peter 1:2 



baptized; 



in the name of the Father 
and of the Son 
and of the Holy Spirit 
- Matthew 28:19 



filled: 



Stabilized: 

Anointed: 

Sealed: 



Given: 



with the Spirit 

singing praises to God 

in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ 

- Ephesians 5:18-20 

in Christ 

by God 

of the Spirit 

- 2 Corinthians 1:21, 22 

varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit 
varieties of ministries, but the same Lord 
varieties of functions, but the same God 

- 1 Corinthians 12:4-6 



Praying: 



through Christ 
in the Spirit 
to the Father 

- Ephesians 



2:18 



Evidently, the early Christians who were taught directly by Jesus 
Christ spoke often of these three in connection with each other — 
even though they did not use the term "Trinity." 

."Praying in the Holy Spirit, keep yourselves in the love 
of God, awaiting the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ." - Jude 20 

"Through our Lord Jesus Christ and through the love of the 
Spirit exert yourselves with me in prayers to God." - Romans 15:30 

"The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God 
and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all! Amen I" 
- 2 Corinthians 13:14 



The doctrine of the Trinity dofs not teach that there are 3 
Gods in one God. Neither does it teach that Jesus is the 
Father, nor that the Holy Spirit is the Son, nor that the 
Holy Spirit is the Father, etc, The doctrine of the Trinity 
teaches there are 3 distinct Persons in one God. Admittedly 
this cannot be fully comprehended . But it is possible. (Luke 
18:27) Humans cannot comprehend spiritual things fully — 
especially some matters about God. 

The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are separate 
Persons. Matthew 28:19 tells uf they share a common "name." 
One name they share is the nam* "Jehovah." The Father is 
called Jehovah, the Son is called Jehovah, the Holy Spirit 
is called Jehovah. But Jehovah is One . The 3 are one God. 
(Compare Deuteronomy 6:4 with Genesis 2:24 where the same 
Hebrew word is used for "one.") 

The Son is subject to the Father in accomplishing the 
redemption of mankind and in His serving as mediator between 
the Father and mankind. It is possible for 2 persons to 
still be equal even though one willingly subjects himself at 
times to the other (Compare Philippians 2:1-4 with 
Philippians 2:5-11, Byington) . 

A correct understanding of the doctrine of the Trinity 
explains how all 3 — the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Spirit can each have Divine nanes, titles and attributes 
applied to them yet there still be only one God. Again, this 
is hard for humans to fully understand — yet our worship of 
God should not be based on human reasoning, but on the 
divine revelation — the Bible , 



985 



TtpocituMT<j<rruaav au-rtji wdv-rtc; dry-fEXai 
let do ob*Lsance toward him all angel* 

eeou. 

of God, 



HEBRBW3 1: T__u 



J <cd vrpoc. 
And toward 



he u saying Tbe (one I 



UEV [toCx! dry-jT>. 
Indeed / the angels 



crurrou 
of him 



rraico* touc; Ory-yEAouq 

4 the "p'l 

ttvEufiotrar, xai fou? MtToupycxic 

spirit], and /the public workers 

acuToo trupo? (fiXoyor » /rpeVc, at Toy u\av 

of hint olfire ikme; fbward but the Son 

3p6vo(f crou A pedc ti^ tqv ai'uva 
The uuoae of you the /Gad into the ace 



tou aiuvoc,, koti i^ 
of the age. and the 



Trjq etftjirfTox; 
tUiT of Use ltrai£h.mess 



sua of the tcingdofti of him. You loved 
5iKjcnocr0vr\if Kai iuiaisaac dvoji'aw" 5 a 
righteousness and you fated lawlessness ; through 
tcx}to sxptcrev ere A 8eo<;, o Be6c rrou, 
this anointed you Die Cod, the God of you, 

iAcnov eryoAALoiaec/c, Trapa touc, iievoxotJC 
oil of exull att osV beside the partners 

oou - 10 Kai flu J kot' apxaq, 

of you; and \Tfou J according to beginnings, 

Lord, UTe^arJK you founded, and works of the 



XjEipcjv crcu 
bands of you 



are 



orrroAoCvron, 
will destroy themselves. 



oupctvoi* 11 co/Toi 
heavens; they 

you ~"--^^ but 

Siaugvcic;' 
you are remaining through. 

1 pernor TiaAaiQ8r|(jowT<ri, 

outer garment will be made a let. 

ixrel nspiBoAaiov iAf^Eie; 



Kori 
and 



navTEC 
all 
12 



woti trcpipoAaiov eAt^Eir; cr/to vc, 

as if thing thrown about you will wrap up them. 

d*; Suariow koI CfAAcxyncrovTOJ* ov 

as outer garment and they will be altered; you 

54 6 aCroc, A, Kai toe £t«i aou ouk 
but the rerf 'one! are, and the years of yon not 

IxAciijtoucrtv. 
will lute out. 

13 trpo^ j'lva Si tcjv cry-ytXcw 

Toward which one but or the angels 

e.Tpn*£v ttote Kd&ou At St£itjw 

has be said sometime Sit you out of right [parts J 



let all God's angels 
worship him." 

7 Also, with refer- 
ence to tbe angels ha 
And he make* 
his ang^r*~£Eiri ts, and 
hi* public serfarHa^s. 
name of flie." 8 Bui 
with reference to the 
Son: "CSod Is your 
throne forever, and 
[the J scepter of your 
iingdem Is the scep- 
ter of uprightness. 
9 You loved righteous- 
ness, and j-ou tutted 
lawlessness. That Is 
why God, your God, 
anointed you with 
[the] oil of exultation 
more than your part- 
ners." 10 And: 'You 
at [the] begir-njng, O 
Lord, laid iha foun- 
dations of the earth 
itself, and the hear' 

BIBS aWf L 'BPj 9B9WF 

at tout bands. 11 They 
themselves will per- 
ish, but you yourself 
are to remain coritin- 
ually; and Just J Ike 
outer garment 
all grow old, 
12 and yohXEjJl^ wrap 
them up just 
cloak, u an outer ~ 
garment ; and they 
will be charged, but 
you are ihe same, 
and your jears will 
never run ouL" 

13 Hut wit& refer- 
ence to which one of 
the angels has he 
ever sold: "Sit at my 



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3iit thou, 

tannorial 

u lhoi 



ujitu likely I might put Uw enemies 



jytroc*. *Oti o-irodov wati op™* *V*r*"' .""_ " .. : 

ftent xXavSfiai t*ifn*ar, a.™ ^fxxrtrfrov t^* opytjs aa» 
$ifiov cow, Sri «rapcs Ktirippaiit ("• t , 

At foipat ^» f*T*l <"«* fKAi^jo-a*-, ^"T «*J 

™X 7ot, «:< 7 «-v xat y,vcdV. Si &«rr« ^"^ 




♦AAMOI: 



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i-r,* Stow, OTt <aifw TOU otitTCiptijo-aji avrij*, oti ij*€l xaipo^. 

"Oti cLOomjo-oy oi SouAo* orou tous XtSovS awnjs, xat tov ^olt 

at-rij? owTttpijtrowrt. Kat d»oj3i7C J t}<roifTru ni (Cw; to o«j^ui 

o-ou Ktpu, (tat irciiT<s <H ^ScuyiAtis ttjk Sofa* cou, 

1 6 *Ort oucoSojUMjo-c* Kupiov T^if Sti-K, Ptai ofpoSJercroi cif rg 

S^fn avTOu. "EiripXaf/tr lirl ttjv rrpoafv^jf TiLr TturtivCif, 

kcu ouk IfovSwiW* Tijr Sriprar avrHtr. Tpmpqrm. avnj tl? 

f 1 9 ytythf hepav, kcu Aom 3 Kroto'/tCKOS aiif«rn riV Kt'punr. On 

fiinxxiar i( v6-ov$ ayiav avroSj Kt'puK i$ oipavoS t'wt ttjk 

V *—i$kal/t, tov dxoEq-ai tou <rrcyayftov t€iv TrnrtSij/teVunr, 

tov; uiout nif rttfamroj/ickiuf, rou AvayytTXat tv 

jujc to orofia~'K*i(iioy, ko! tfjv aiffo-tv aurou bt \tpauo-a\w 

; tv ™ cnfayD^vat AaoSSiByroauTO, «at fiaiTtXtZs TOV oovA.tttif 

nil KvpitJ. 

"A— tKpt&rj qlti3 eV oSu foxwos avroiJ^T^i(5\tyorT/Ta tuw 
rjLtpwv pov avdyyuXov ^tot* ^ Qi-ayorjnjs r*( ivtyZto 
uou, cy yeveot ytveiii' ri «nj q-ou. Kar apX* 1 ' CT« 
K i 'ate t^ejutXtiocrag, Kai ejtrya tujk ^tipHv trov titriv ot oipavoi. 
Avroi aTroXoCkrat, crJ Si 8ta r teVOS' hox — avrtv £i$ pia.Ti.ov 
— iXaauB-^srovTat, not oxrei TtpijioKaiov i\i£fis atrcfts, tai 
iAAayr/trorrai. 5u Si o cruras <T, nal ra ?nj crow oyn t^Att- 
Cwcrv Oi f'oi riuK SovAuir trou KaTao-snvttKrOLitrd urat ro 
j-rrepfia avTii" fits rov atuvot KaTrvoWft}0"£T<it. 



|202 103) Ti davio. 

EtAoyet $ ifmvi} pov rav Kvptoc, icai irdi-ra sa cvros jliou 
*U n ojoiia ro ayiof atrov. EtAoyfl tj T^f>[1 r 1 *^ T01 ' Kt-ptov, 
3 <il utj liiriAaf^dvot; rroxra? ras attEcctg airor /Toy cutAarEt- 

oi-ro — ao-m? rais tivo^ttaii o-ot\ roi* uapwov —aaa% ras voo-ots 
-I tou, ro y AvTpot ; jU* V01 ' ** <P@°pa* tt/v fuijv /con, T6K ore- 
3 c^uoffra ere cV tA«i xal otKTippoZ;, rbv ifxirhrXSiVTa. tv aya- 

f'ti rijr ixt&vpiay arav cWxao' wftjkrf rat t^t aiTOV ^ «im/t 

6 notiif^XSjpaorrt'as 6 Kvpcog, real npipM. {Train. ro« aotxou- 
' ■'Owj, 'Eyi(^t£rf*rB*^oSoi.s atroS nJ /Vltuvcnj, rotr rto« 
S fo-paijA -a f3t,\.ijfiQTQ avrotrr*«<0^ipf«iiy kcu tAtrJ^toy o Kv- 
3 ptos, fitHtpo^fpioe Kai 7roAtjtA(Ov. Xrtn-eft TeA« OrTyicrftjo-fTBt, 

10 'i'.'ii ttj ray -lsiLifa p-rjviu. Oi koto. ni« n^iafTTtns yp£nr tirot- 
^ey ffwr, oi'Si rara tAs at ouias ijjwiaiy dyTa!^tStlMetl(■ lj^tiy. 

1 1 Ort, Kara to iij/tn tov ovpayou dirci trp yr/?, &tp*T<u*W« 
II '_ K'p,o ? T ^ t\ (f) ^ aurou t 1 — t tou? <^o^?ouatKOW aurdy. Kaffoo-or 
I -"Ojowriy diraroAai dxo SuOTttuK, f r td*cpt.l'Cy a.<j> rj/ttuv Tag 
f'** -i^i'ag ijfimv. Ka6£is oLKTetptt a-arrjjp vtotff. tixTtiprjo-f 

'"• Kt^toe roi-^ tpoj3ovftti airg airoy. *Ort auros tyya* to TrAderpi 

■* At PpiuToc, i<r ei ^dpTo? at 'julpai. avrov, iLo"tt ity f?os tou 

r- 1 "j , '" < '^ "t-Ttug f^an^TJtrtt. 'On TTveupo; StijA&v «v avni, ™ 

' J l X *--a.p£*i, not otic t~tyviio-(Tat irt Toy roiroy avrov. To 

*** (Aros toD Kupi'ou djro toD auivog xat ct«»s tou atwfog &W 



Fuljb CI. It— CII. 17. 

slialt arise, and baTe mercy upon 9 ion : for 
it i* tuna to hare mercy upon her, for the 
set time » come. u For thy serraiita ten 
taken pleasure La her stones, and they jhafl 
pity her dust a 3o the ant ions shall 
Fear thy came, O Lord, and all bugs thy 

°«5or the Lord shall build up Sioa, f* aod 
shall appear in his glory. "He hw had 
regard to the prayer of the lowly, and hu 
not despised their pe'iti"™- UJL «' j r* 
written for another generation ; and the 
people that si i all be created shall praise the 
Lord. ■ For he has looked oat from the 
height of his sanctuary; the Lord looted 
upon the earth from heaven; ^to hear the 
groining- of the fettered ones, to loosen the 
sons of the slain; "to proclaim the name 
of the Lord in Sion. and his praise in 
Jerusalem; °-irheii the people are gathered 
together, and the tings, to serre the Lord. 

3 He answered him in. the way of fiis 
strer gth : tell tae the fewness of my days, 
-* Take me not away in the midst of my 
days,: thy years artt through all generations. 
a ln the ' beginning thou, O Lord, dtdst 
Say the foundation of the earth; and rne 
heavens are the worts of riiine lianas. 
■*Ihey shaU perish, but thou remainest: 
and ihey nit shall wii old as a garmeut ; 
and as a vesture shalt thou fold tbem. and 
they shall be changed. s But thou art ilie 
same, and thy years shall not tail. 3 The 
Sim st ?Vr sawsa aia, sbeM i«*il 
seevrttr, and their seed shall » prosper for 
ever. 

A Psalm of David. 

Bless the Lord, O my soul ; and all t\ai 
it within me, btett his holy name. x Bless 
the Lord. O my soul, and forget not all his 
TFTaises : ' who forgives all thy traaigressioos, 
who heals ail thy diseases; 'who redeenfs 
t by life from corruption \ who crown s thee 
with mercy and cons passion ; * who satisfies 
thy desire with good things: ta that thy 
youth shall be renewed Lute that of the 
end* . 

■The Lord executes mercy and judgment 
for all that are injured. 'He made known 
his ways to Hoses, bis will to the children 
of IsraeL 'The Lord is rampassionate and 



ritixul. long-suffering, and full of merer. 
He will not be alivays angry: neither will 
he be wrath ful for ever- "He has not 
dealt with us according to our sins, nor 
recompensed us according: to oar iniquities. 
" For as the heaven is high above the earth, 
the Lord has ta increased hit mercy to- 
ward I hem that fear him. u Ajfarasthe 
east is trotn the west. *o/ur has he removed 
our transgression* from us. u A»,a latiier 
pities hit children, the Lord pities them 
thut fear him. '* For he knows our trame : 
reo.err ber that we are dust. 

:t At for man, his Jays are as g"ss;. as 
a flower of the Beld. so shall he tiounsh. 
'■* For the wind passes orer it. and it shall 
not be ; and it stall know its place no more. 
• But the mercj of tbe Lord is from gene- 
ration to generation upon them that feu 



jS Or, then jbiU b*. iHeb.LU.lJ. * Or. planl. t*. 1 * JJ««d irilbt 



Pbalms XXXIL 6— SXXni. 14. 

mercy and judgment i the earth is foil of 
the mercy of the Lord. ( By the word of 
the Lord the heaven* were established iM 
alt the host of them by the breath of his 
mouth. 'Who gathers the waters of the 
efsu in a hottii'; -who lays up the deeps 
in treasuries *Let all the earth fear the 
Lord; and let all that dwell in the world 
he moved because of him. * For he spoke, 
and the j were made: he commanded, and 
they were created. ■ The Lord frustrates 
the counsel* of the nations; he brings U 
nought also the reasonings of the people 
andbriiig* bo nought the counsels of prince 
» Bat the counsel of the Lord endures f 
ever, the thoughts of his heart from gene 
tion to generation. u Blessed is the nat 
whose God is the Lord; the -people wl 
he has chosen for his own inheritance. B 
Lord looks out of heaven ; he behold 
the sons of men. " He looks from hi 1 
pared habitation on all the dwellers c 
earth; u who fashioned their hearts 
who understands all their works. ■ 
is not saved by reason of a great hoF 
a giant shall not be delivered by tt 
ness of his strength. '' A. horse is 
safety; neither anall be be deliver' 

"Behold, the eyes of the Lo 
them that fear him. those that 1 
mercy ; ls to deliver their souls f 
and bo keep them alive in fam 
■out waits on the Lord ; for he : 
and defender. 3 For our heart 
in him. and we haTe ho; 
name. ™ Let thy mercy, O 
according as we have hoped 



1 



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fAAMOI, 



717 



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jf Psalm of David, when 
countenance before Abf 
let him go, and he depar 
I will bless the Lord 

F ■raise shall be continui 
My soul shall r boast hi 
let the meet hear, and 
ye the Lord with me, 
name together. 

* I sought the Lore 
hearkened to me, and > 
my* sojouminga. * XI 
be enlightened : and your 
ony means be ashamed. ' This poor man 
cried, and the Lord hearkened to him, and 
delivered him out of all his afflictions. 




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faces'shautot gy ^worw-ftp*, «<" to nrpdo-unra. 4p&" oi ftvj KtLTtxi&xovH 
' This poor man o TTdiyov ittacpagt, teal o Kijpios etoT?Kano-€v auro 



.M»0>f V™ &H c °0 

^Boiiji 

«lr e ", be^. ° « ■--« i 
'IJ/wnj-eXfiaTf irpoj oviot 



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6 tttw^os iKiKpa££, koi o »v.upi0! etOTJJCono-fi' airrot, Km « 
Trcuriln' ™v Wttyreiuv oitov to-ciXTti' airo'v. Ila^ie/ipaAst ayyeAo? ' 



' The Bngel of the Lord will encamp round Kvpiov kdkAui Ttnv ^opo^TiCTteH' avroCj not pmerat avTois. 
■bout them that fear him. and will deliver Tcvaavfo ko.1 t&ere on vprwros 5 Kvouk. uoKopio? nvf/p os 8 
them. 'Taste and see that the Lord is , v .,. , ■ , , , >fc » rr ' tl I 3. , „,"™ <) 

good: 
S Fail 



about them that fear him. and will deliver 

them. 'Taste and see that the Lord is , „=.-,: 

good ; blessed is the man who hopes in him. #*■*&» « ™™- *op^%« "* Kvptov ™*r« m aytot atTOi . 

'Fear the Lord, all ye his saints: for there J Tl 0UK to-rtv wT^n?^ tois ^to^ovpJvOK af-roV. nXowioi W 

thev that seek the Lord diligently shall not iXaTriD&^TOvrat x-avros dyoPou- ctaifraXfia. 

wait any good thing. Pause, f «E'i • - 11 

"Come.ye children, hear me: I will teach Aevrt -kkvo., axoi-o-oTt jjioit, 4>ofiov Kupiov 6ioa£ M •■'r'™ 5 - '' 

you the fear of the Lord, f f W* 1 * 1 msn "! Tis etrrti' avfatrsros o WXw &*m-, dvawiv nuepas iScTi' aya&ds,- 1 - 

there that desires life, loving to see good *'V ; "r~_ "> f » v' 7 - ^ ' r T. ,, '- „£ la 

days!* B Keep thy tongue from enl, and Hauo-ov Trjy yvaKrcrcw eruu otto kokuv, jhu X*^ 1 ? <to *' , -. J. 

thy lips from rpeatiiig guile, Jl Turn away AoAmrai ooAoi . TBmdtwer dxo KSKQW, «oi ■jrotnoxi*' oyaftji" 1 
from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pur- 
aue it. 



AoAijo 

^f/ngo-or tlpmnT*-, 



Si Off' 



ov atmji'. 



«T iserbmpi ■ inamdastlT.* FiJe. ncillitiin. 



7 pr. tepnucd. 



4 ZU. meiglibcrarlooa*. t 1 Pa* lthli - 



JL Kvpiov rrri Bixoiovi, icai iSra auroit cis icijo-iv 

Upoo-dflrov Si K^piOU tTt JTOIOWTM xaifi, tou «|oAo- 

t « 775 to p^jAoorwi'OV avrtlv. *Eu€Kp(ifav oi SiKaiot, 

gjWjj tunjKOviJcv tttt&V, «al (K ttoo-u-i' Turn fiAi'iifui' 

ippwraro afnous. *Eyytv Kt'ptos rots truirreTpifi^ei otf 

jipE/ai', *ai tot's -rairaroii tw vrvri^ciTt o-tio-ft. IIoAAal 

X&keii tuf SiiMuiuv, xal at TatrHv airutv pucrcrai ourouv 

' „ 4>vAao-o"£t iraWa to. oo"rii airiiji', ev *s *8HW ou 

trpifi-facTai. Qayaros afiapTtoAun/ irovypot, Km ot fxifrow- 

s to Stxatov irA-n^>i(X^trovo-i. Avrp(iff<Tai Ku'ptos uVi^a? 

jusjtiw aurov, ical ou p.^ TrAi)^p.eAi)o-oi«rt B-avTej ol <A-i^oit£9 

i' xarrav. 






Tui Aaui'S. 



* Aurdurov, KwpK, Toiit euWoivras pr, TroAyiiproi' toi^ iroXe- 
Iduwrrac p«. *E-[Aaj3ou oVAou xal Bvptov, tcai avaorrfii. (U 
Borfitiai' jtM. *EK)(tov f>op.$aia.y, teal avyKkiiaov c^tvaiTios 
■<-tw icaTaSifcHtoWufV fie- tijroc tj V^X3 r 101 '' o-uinjpia cent iyut 
ttfii. Altr)(yvfffirjcray koI oTpa?r*rjjo-ai> oi ^ijTOti*T*s n)i' t^t'X'J 1 ' 
^ ^b ...jT.nn')ii7ii 44a v4k 'I t g ^ rn • naTii j ry mnrTr""'"" c^- 
Aoyitop^'Oi /iO! a-avd. Tfviji5ijT(oo-ai' wr« jfous jcara -jrpou"tu- 
jro; o*tpou, kou oyytXo? Kvpi'ou eKoAipiDi 1 atTOrs. rtvijeijTtJ 
A ABw auTuii' o-jtOTW nat oAiV0i]/i.a, kqi tT-)^y«Aos Kvpton KaTa- 
Su>kw oiuTouV. *Ori oaipcaf cKpixf/dv fioi otad^opac wtt-ytooj 
ovrifli' J furnjy &v( iBurov ttji' T T^» r fiov. 

llXtffni) auroT^ irnyls ^p on yiTOOxowi, Ktu, y) ftjpa ijv «k- 

pvtyav, cruAAnjScTiu ai-TOlrt, itai cv rg ira^tSi jrecroiSTOi ey avrjj . 

I *H St t^VC) ^ olr ayaAAuwrcrax <7rl t£ Ktroi'iii, Ttp^oHJo-frat In 

I tu cromjpuj auro?. IlnVra to. oot£ pou epoSo"i, Knpie tit 

OfiOiA; crot; puojuiei'os Trrxmxoi' «k X* 4 ? 01 OT€p<taTfpw&vroi t Kai 

■wtux ov K<1 * *"^JT°- ojto raw Siayre-a^QiTCflr anror. 

'AvnoraiTtt uaprupti SBtxot, a. ouk hftvuxiKov, cirrjpwTiDv pt. 
AvraTTtSSBocdv ^toi ironjpo. d»Ti HaXSn/, kci aTEKCtav tjj t^X?' 

l turn. "Eyijc) Sc cv T6J auroi 1 ? srapevoxAsii' pot, tVtouoptjj' uo.kkoi- 
«u crintraw 4* njoreia tlfV t^VXV f 10 "" Kal 4 " n 'r >o 0" £1 -'X^ r 10 " 
*tl trdATTOl' pou aTrotrrpao^TjorfTat. "fls irAijo-ioi^ ii? dSfX<^oi i 

t Tjtp.eVipoi' ovrun evrjptarouv, in -TrcvSviy itai CTKVOptinrafysiv ootids 
tran-etvoijpiji'. Kat hot* Ifim! eixjipdv&ijaaY, *at oxinjx l ^7 cralr > 
Ovryx&ijaav i.ir' cpi n-axTTtyts ksm ovk eyvtai'- oleo-x'C^e l tJo-a^• *cai 

1 oil *tar<vuyijO"QV. 'lix-tipcurdv pc, e^cpuKTTjpuraj' fit ^.vkttj- 
p«rpoK, IJSpufa*' cir" *li« TOi 1 ; oSdrra? anTuiv. 

Kupt« ttot< ttro'i^-Tf ; *Eiro»raTiioT?fcroi' ttjv tyvxqv fusv O5ro tiijs 
KaKOupy/aj atbw, arro Aeofrwv T^c >iOi-oy*Mj p-ou, "EfopoXo- 
y^o-opLQi' o-ot Kai o 1 tKKAifO-i'a iroXA^, iv XntZ fiapti alritTai ere. 
Mij oriT^o.ptiTjo-d'i' poi ot i)($patvBVTfS pot fiaTuiios, ai ptcroviT*; 
pt 5a>p£iv, koI Siarcivvrcs 6^!>c9aAp.ots. *Ort */toi jxty tipi)ifi«a. 
•AaAouv, «al tjr" QpYQ SoAoips SicXoytJovTO. Kai enrXdnTav 



16 



11 



s . 

B Th* 

righteai 
pra yer : 
aca:n»t 
memori 
cried, a 
"and d 
(ions 
are of a 
low! i ir 
of the t 
Lord v 
their h 
broken, 
thevth* 
-The J 
servant: 
him sba 



Jud^c 

me, ik' 
ine. - '1 

arise fo 
and etc 
cute me 

* Let tl 
and cou 

sname. 
wind, a 
them, * 
and an 
' For w 
their d 
the v ha 

s Let 
upon tl 
take th 
same m 
the Lot 
»A11 n 
like to- 
hand of 
the poi 
spoil hi 

» Tii 
of thinj 
evil for 
>^But 
sackclo' 
ii;r : an 
boiom. 
as if it 
1 humh 
of conn 
me, am 
against 
eeatiert 
ednie, I 
tuously 

i"0 I 
Deliver 
only-be 
give tbl 
gat ion : 
thee. 1 
withou 
hale ill' 
eyes. ; 
hut imi 



& Qt. (he broktE La heart. t The Or. a repeated, bj a BcbriUoi. 



)I [113 i - " a , , 

jy the tiTOU, ov raoiroy ev 
u, Go Kai c*ir* 



dpvjuoi 



ErtWAt^^H 



j PETEB 3: U-" 



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lu 
*}" 

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Ai 
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i at j 
ney 
/taj 
be i 
tfasj 
oms. 
a tid 

MlliJ 
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eveT toward 



ft *S HAS ^ «ss^S^ SS **-. «sg! 
uope ' *-™«* ***§». ..J&ftftf *M' 



« * .lywni ** [one I sllghtingl? Tin c" 11 ' 

teV^SSf <=* °^ r '"' - yap 11 P°t t * *us« *° 



Xpi<TTt> 
Christ 



« „°»*ai the *"» lwi3bM a ^ u ^ » tftt. 

s kcwoiiolou^V tow »*■ 

to <t>t suasratS 



onoCTTpofTiv. 
conduct. 



cnra> 
the W™ ooa ' 



'ur upu* i^u'^iiw^w*" ^ ir ^, r , w. r r ~ B 

tjstt ^oj3° s ' «rra* yap otto t!js xeptrouKai oKar&j, tis/Joo-KTjua 
-po/JaVotf, teal waraffiinj/ia jSods. 

Kai £*K-f Ktpios xpos r", Aaj3r cr*aim£ TOp-ov Kaivou jxeya- 
iov, Kai ypa&av <ts ivroc ypatftSk dvcfyxifl-oif, toij o^aus xpova- 
u.jti' TroiTJffM tTKvXtnv TLapctm. yap m m fxdprvpai pot ^roiijfrov 
-icrroi-i diH^pilrrovs, rbv Ovptay «at Zax a P" 1 *' **3» Bapa^t'ou. 
Kai -poo^A^ov Trp&s riji' irpocjnjrtv, «ai cv yacrrpi tXafit, 
km IrtKW vlov koI tt-Trt Kvpnos ftm, KaXctrov to opojiia 
aiTov, Ta^eas frKvAewnoc, ofeufr Trpo vo^ohtov* Aioti 
toiit| yi^ivai to srtuSibv itaXfik Ttarlpa. 7} fajripa, \rjtfrerai 
Sivnuiv Aa^ioo-jtoiJ, Kdl Ta tritvAxi Sa^apcta; eva*Ti pucrtAouj 

Kat -jrpocre'&TO Kijpitre XaXdjcnu >i.ot ere its to /mj 

Ba&Utr&a* tov Aaov ToDTOf to" f Siup toJ- SiA<ua/t to 77op«;d/if- 
me fcrnvij, aAAa j9ovXeo-fiat. I^ch' toc 'Pacrtrtt' xai top utoif 
"PofteAi'ou BatrtXta l<^* vpwv, Smrovro iSau Kvptos dydyci e^ 
t/ias to "6iup tov urOTa^ioUj to ur^upof koc to iroXi 1 , toI' paai- 
\ia Ts&v AffWpiaar, Kat r^p Sofae avrotr- xai ara^cr<Tat cn-i 
^■O'sav p-Lr,.j yy x iftSsy, Kai TCtpiTranj^ei l~l Trav Tfi)(as vftuSf, 
koX ocieA.*! dxo rijs loi'SaicL? aitJptujrov, &j Swijcrcrai k^oA^i 1 
a/.at, i^ ivvarov <rvvTt\ft?iio'Qa.l n m «al ccrrat tf ■x-apififio\if 
Qt-roC tutrrt 7rAT/pi»C7ai to srAaros t?}« ^tupas crou, ft*& fjp-wr 
6 0<Js. 

rvwTe fSny Kai -ijTTacrSe, curatcovaare «MS «V)(aTOu rfjs y^? - 
^r^^inr J f J.J^ ! ?i w 7V fpiA*t. ' j y.'j -y n, -,>**. : "-4~j- 
Te<T^(. Kai ^v u,* 1 fiovXeia-ijaOe ftov\i{P, ouia-KtSiitrtt Ki'pios' 
K-Ji ■Vjyoy ov taif ,\aA^erFjre, ou fii) ipfitiirtj iv iplv, on p.t&' 
t;.ji-Iit u Qeo?. Ourtu Aeyfi Kvpiof, Tg lajft-pa ^etpt J-tt&ivcri 
rj —aptia rij? o-SoD toC AaoS toJtou, <\<70it<?, jtuJ-OTf n-iztucri, 
'7*fAi]p6v Trap yap o iav f-tirg a Aao? otios, trifAnpuf «OT4- tov 
S« d toSar aurou ov fi.ij cpo^3ijS^r* oiSe /11) rapa^ft'jTe. KrptoK 
i l 7'jyj a«ytgoraTf . ku! auTus «TTai crau ^0^05. Kdi> tir otrw 
tT&t^^ ^9, tcrrai croi eis Jyuxcr^a, ital ot-jj lis Ai'fou trpoaKop.- 
I'".?t cn.xavTi1crf.c78e, aiSi in Trerpos —Ttup.a.yc ol it micoi la- 
»-'--.■" &• Tro,y«St, wai ei? KcnActTjUori ey*raS)jfi«i'oi lv \fpoi:<Ta\^jx. 
At.;ratTo (iiiui anjccwo'ii' iv airots ~oAAo'l. sal s-ftroLiTai tcax 
,r i.-.rpip(]crotTat, koi eyyioLcrt, khi aXtLxrovrat. uv&pta—ot lv 
•*f<lM\(ifi. Tort ttavtpoi Itrovrat. 01 o-^payi^ojacKjt toc vo/tov 

''". pij fltlStiV. 

Kai Ipil, p.tva> Ttjv Qeov tov a^wrrpe^-avTa to —po&tinrov 

I ".-?',v u— o tov otwou l/rsiiji, nal Tr(7TO(&ai5 tuojiai t!7 awri. 

K'A! €yi> Kai ra — aiSta u uot eSwK«v o 0e&5" (fal eaTtti OTjptia 

"'u TEjja-a <v ™ o'kcci Io"paijA irapa. Kiptou fraficaiiB, oj kot- 

k<i ev thu op«i Skuv. 



r 



/V 



» .lllj. 



111 (■'', 'eiviiic.' 



f * ■ 

Or. far Uad iaA Far * ihora. 




Kat c' t j» ciij-iutrt Trpos fytas, ^irriJiaTe tolj £yyao"Tpl/»i'5oi-s, 
""a: T'jti a.Tro tiji yijs t^oji'oriTa?, Toij KfloAoyoitTa?, u\ Ik rif5 



be certainly pli>uihed: there shall no tear 

coma timber: tor there shall ba from 
among the barren .r..-:l:i,i and tboroj tliat 
whereon cattle shall feed and oien shall 
tread. 

And the Lord aid to me, Take to thyself 
fl vohtnse of a great new ? book, and write in 
it ivitU a m.vn's pea concerning the making 
a rapid ^plunder Of *poilj ; for it ia near at 
limuL ; And make me iritnesaes of EiitUfid 
men, Urias. asd Zachariaj the son of 
BaracMai 3 And 1 went in to the pro- 
phetess ; and she conceired, and bore a »on. 
And the Lord said to me, Call hii name, 
Spod quickly, plunder speedily. *Fot be- 
fore the child 5 bill know Aon? to call Au 
father or bis mother, one shall take the 

Sower of Damascus and the spoils of Samaria 
efare the king of the Assyrians 
*And the Lord spoke to me jet again, 
settling \ 'Because this people chooses not 
the water of Siloam that goes softly, but 
wills to have _ It a aim, and the son ot Ro- 
meliaa to be ting over you; ^therefore, be- 
hold, the Lord brings up upon you tha 
water of the river, strong and abundant, 
even the kin; of the Assyrians, and his 
glory: and he sball come up over every 
valley of jours, and shall walk over every 
wall of y ours : i andheshalitake away from 
Juda ece ry man who shall be able to lift up 
his head, and tiery o.ie able to accomplish 
anything ; and bis casp shall ILLL t be breadth, 
of thy land, r Go-:l with us. 

'Ivuoif, ye & entiles, and be conquered; 
hearken ye , e ren to t lie extremity of the 
earth 1 be cor.ouered. after re hove strength- 
ened yourselves ; for even if ye should again 
ibeaajtlMM rywiirf*'*^ y-» aboil ■gaJa ba 
conquered. "And Tvliitsoever counsel yo 
shall take, the Lord shall bring it to nought : 
aud whatsoever word ye shall spt-ak, it shall 
not stand among yon : for God is with us. 
"Thus saitb. the Lord, "VTith a strong hand 
they ' revolt from the course of the way of 
this people, sayi:ig, ^ Let them not oay, It 
it hard, for whatsoever this people says, ia> 
bard: but fear not ve tlteir four, neither be 
dismayed. ^danetUy ye the Lord himself; 
and < he shall be tliy'fear. "And if thou 
siialt trust in him, he shall be to thee for a 
,=iinctnary ; and ye shall not come against 
him aa against *s stumbling-itone, ni-ither 
as against the fuiiingj of a rock: but the 
houses of Jacob are in a snare, and the 
dwellers in Jerusalem in a pit. * l'bercforo 
many anion? rhem -\ial[ be wrak, and fall, 
and he crush ed : an-1 they shall draw nigh, 
and meu shall be taken securely. ""Then 
shall those who seal themselves that they 
may * not learn the law be made manifest. 

17 And one stall say, I will wait for God, 
who has turned away ids face from the house 
of Jacob, ar.d I will trust in him. b m He- 
hold [ and the ehdilren which God has 
given me: and the;.- shall be fur signs and 
wonders' in the L-^ase uf Iirarl from the 
Lord of ho-t?. who dwells in mount Sion. 

ll, And if tuey should say to you, JScek 
£ tho.^e who have in them a divinim; spirit, 
aud them that speak out uf the earth, tbem 



J J'cjt. pwer, ar, ;nchmvn.t- 7 Hti. Imoiiouri. i '>. .j..-.wj. 

A Aitx. — ' msl.' jj deb. S.UL r Or. 1 cr: :.-::',■;■ ■-■'■' 



C Or, let Lijn te. 



tf p. .-ii. :■ ii. 



^U {&»t**nt) f* ^ftX^> *? " M *> < s "te&b*